All Titles

Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students
Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students

Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students

A general resource for African research for students at the high-school level or higher. Consists of 450 alphabetically arranged entries covering countries, regions, geographic features, cultural groups, personalities, and general subjects such as body adornment and clothing, oral tradition, and writing systems. Includes timelines, definitions and quick-reference fact boxes.

African American Eras
African American Eras

African American Eras

Covers a different era of importance to African American culture and includes the events, lifestyles, social history, and key figures unique to that time; included are eyewitness accounts and primary documents.

African American Eras
African American Eras

African American Eras

Covers the time period of 1865 through 1965; topics include the arts, medicine and health, education, religion, government and politics, law, and trade related to the African American experience.

Alternative Energy
Alternative Energy

Alternative Energy

This three-volume set introduces students to issues surrounding both current energy sources and alternative energy options. While there is significant discussion of the non-renewable resources now used to meet the majority of the world's energy needs (oil, coal and natural gas), the primary focus of the set is on newer options to meet the ever-growing demand.

American Countercultures
American Countercultures

American Countercultures

This reference work examines the impact of countercultural movements on American social history, from colonial times to the present. It highlights the writings, recordings, and visual works produced by these movements to educate, inspire, and incite action throughout the nation's history. A–Z entries provide information on personalities, places, events, concepts, beliefs, groups, and practices.

American Decades
American Decades

American Decades

Cross-disciplinary source for junior and high school students and teachers, public librarians and general researchers who need to document and analyze periods of contemporary American social history (1900-1999).

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 1
American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 1

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 1

Includes essays on events, publications, lifestyles and individuals important to the era of industrial development in U.S. history.

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 2
American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 2

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 2

Includes essays on events, publications, lifestyles and individuals important to the Civil War and Reconstruction Era in U.S. history.

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 3
American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 3

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 3

Includes essays on events, publications, lifestyles and individuals important to the Westward Expansion Era in U.S. history.

American Law Yearbook
American Law Yearbook

American Law Yearbook

An annual supplement to the Gale Encyclopedia of American Law that updates and expands the content with new topics, updates, biographies of prominent figures and government appointees, and other features. Each year's edition contains the full U.S. Supreme Court docket in addition to the non-Supreme Court cases. Includes a glossary of legal terms.

American Presidential Campaigns and Elections
American Presidential Campaigns and Elections

American Presidential Campaigns and Elections

This reference work provides coverage of every presidential election campaign in American history, from 1788-1789 through 2012. The section on each election includes profiles of the major candidates, maps and tables of the voting results, a chronology of key events, a selection of primary-source documents (speeches, party platforms, letters, songs, and the like), and recommended readings.

Ancient Greece and Rome
Ancient Greece and Rome

Ancient Greece and Rome

Covers an extensive array of topics on ancient Greece and Rome including daily life, art and architecture, philosophy, science, religion, statesmen, military leaders, emperors, and more.

Asian and Pacific Islander Americans
Asian and Pacific Islander Americans

Asian and Pacific Islander Americans

Features 567 essays covering Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, from the late eighteenth century through the early twenty-first century, famous for their work in such fields as entertainment, sports, civil rights, politics, and literature.

Bioethics, ed. 4
Bioethics, ed. 4

Bioethics, ed. 4

Offers hundreds of revisions or addenda to entries from previous editions as well as new or revised entries on topics such as key cases in bioethics, the human biome, genetically modified foods, emergency preparedness and response, social justice, sustainability, chemical warfare and torture, among many others. Revised articles explain the events as well as legislation changes of the past decade. Previous editions published as the Encyclopedia of Bioethics.

Biology
Biology

Biology

Explains biological concepts and explores related fields as well as the history of biological science. Discusses critical issues such as embryogenesis and commercial applications of research in biology and addresses ethical issues. Provides information on careers in biology and contains color illustrations, sidebars, bibliographies, timelines, charts, and a glossary.

Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America
Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America

Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America

The hairstyles, slang terms, advertising jingles, pop music sensations, and all else described as popular culture is covered in this five-volume reference. Arranged chronologically by decade and by broad topics within each decade, this set focuses solely on the popular culture of the twentieth century, offering more detailed information on trends and fads than any other resource. Written specifically for students in grades 5 through 12.

Business Leader Profiles for Students
Business Leader Profiles for Students

Business Leader Profiles for Students

Profiles of significant contributors to business and industry, past and present, written especially for high school students.

CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa
CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa

CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa

Provides descriptions of household and high-interest products, step-by-step descriptions of manufacturing processes, and sidebars with additional information. Covers for each entry: why there was a need, who invented it, how it is made, what it is made of, and how it works. Includes photographs, illustrations and line drawings, and a glossary of definitions.

Career Information Center, ed. 10
Career Information Center, ed. 10

Career Information Center, ed. 10

Provides the most current information available on careers in the United States and Canada to people of all ages and all stages of career development. Each volume covers a career cluster and its common career pathways. Job profiles cover the following: job facts, nature of work, work environment, education, licenses, certification, and training, job outlook, similar occupations, and sources of additional information such as books, audio/visual materials, and organizations.

CaseBase: Case Studies in Global Business, v. 2
CaseBase: Case Studies in Global Business, v. 2

CaseBase: Case Studies in Global Business, v. 2

Covers business case studies focused on issues in emerging markets and emerging industries across the globe.

Colonial America
Colonial America

Colonial America

This book captures the people, institutions, ideas, and events that helped establish and define the United States of America. While it focuses on the thirteen British colonies along the Atlantic Coast, Colonial America sets this history in a larger context. Entries also cover Canada, the American Southwest and Mexico, and the Caribbean and Atlantic world as they impacted the history of the thirteen colonies.

Colonial America Reference Library
Colonial America Reference Library

Colonial America Reference Library

The Colonial America Reference Library provides students with the comprehensive information on the Colonial American period they need to write reports and class assignments including biographical profiles and primary source documents.

Computer Sciences
Computer Sciences

Computer Sciences

Reviews the history of computer science, discusses concepts, and profiles contributors in the field. Also explores the impact of computers on society, with examples in literature and film to illustrate and support trends. Includes illustrations, sidebars, bibliographies, filmographies, timelines, charts, and a glossary. For general audiences.

Contemporary American Religion
Contemporary American Religion

Contemporary American Religion

Explores contemporary American religion in all its diversity. In addition to profiling religious groups, from the modern forms of Catholicism and Judaism to cults such as Heaven's Gate and the Branch Davidians, the set includes articles on cultural, social, and legal issues, as well as holidays and celebrations, the arts, and other topics. 2 volumes. For general and academic audiences.

Countries and Their Cultures
Countries and Their Cultures

Countries and Their Cultures

Presents the cultural similarities within a country that set it apart from others by examining over 200 countries to document the myriad ways in which culture defines and separates the nations of the world as much as geographical borders do. Surveys each country's shared values, behaviors and cultural variations from foods and rituals to pastimes and arts, using a standard entry format for easy comparison. Provides illustrations, photographs and maps. 4 volumes.

Crime and Punishment in America Reference Library
Crime and Punishment in America Reference Library

Crime and Punishment in America Reference Library

Covering the evolution of the American criminal justice system throughout history, Crime and Punishment in America Reference Library explores everything from juvenile justice to organized crime.

Daily Life during African American Migrations
Daily Life during African American Migrations

Daily Life during African American Migrations

This book focuses attention to the everyday social, cultural, and political lives of migrants in the United States as they established communities far away from their former homes.

Elizabethan World Reference Library
Elizabethan World Reference Library

Elizabethan World Reference Library

Provides background and information on the culture and history of the Elizabethan period, biographies of significant men and women of the time, and primary sources that represent some of the most significant and studied documents of the era.

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, ed. 2

A five-volume set and supplement covering all aspects of the African-American experience from 1619 to the present day. Using biographies, historical essays, and thematic pieces, many written by foremost scholars, it addresses a wide array of subjects in over 2,300 articles to define in one source the cultural roots, participation in American life, and current condition of the African-American community.

Encyclopedia of American Folklife
Encyclopedia of American Folklife

Encyclopedia of American Folklife

This encyclopedia explores the rich and varied cultural traditions of folklife in America. Entries cover major cities and urban centers; new and established immigrant groups as well as Native Americans; U.S. states and territories; social issues, such as education and intellectual property; and expressions of material culture, such as homes, dress, food, and crafts. It addresses religious groups and the diversity within them, diverse age groups, and contemporary folk groups.

Encyclopedia of American Social Movements
Encyclopedia of American Social Movements

Encyclopedia of American Social Movements

This reference work examines significant social movements in American history, covering each movement’s goals, tactics, and effects, as well as its successes and failures. It also examines the interrelationships among different movements and how they shaped American politics, culture, and society. Also featured are biographical portraits of leaders and key figures of the nation’s social movements, as well as a variety of original documents.

Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, ed. 3
Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, ed. 3

Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, ed. 3

Designed for the nonspecialist, the Encyclopedia of Business and Finance is a 2-vol. complete reference covering five general areas: finance and banking; accounting; marketing; management; and information systems. Drawing on practical professional expertise as well as that of noted scholars, the contributors include executives, government administrators and scholars from leading business programs from around the United States.

Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society
Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society

Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society

This 3-vol. set presents the social and cultural history of childhood from antiquity to the present. Children and Childhood examines this history through articles on education, parenting, child labor, economics, images of childhood, children's literature, play, toys and games, health, physiology, law, the criminal justice system and social welfare.

Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion
Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion

Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion

A survey of clothing, costume and fashion. Coverage includes the origins of clothing and body adornment, the development of fabrics and technologies, and the social meanings of dress, as well as representative costumes from a wide range of historical eras. For students and researchers at the high-school level or higher.

Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior, ed. 2

Provides more than 700 articles intended for the student and layperson covering the social, medical and political issues related to drugs and alcohol, as well as types of addiction. Changes since the last edition include the decrease of crack cocaine use and resurgence of heroin use; changes in laws dealing with drug use at the state and national levels; and new discoveries leading to a better understanding of how drugs work and what makes them addictive.

Encyclopedia of Education, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of Education, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of Education, ed. 2

Offers a complete view of the institutions, people, processes, roles, and philosophies in educational practice in the United States and throughout the world. Features biographies of influential educators; profiles of historic colleges and universities and of organizations active in the field; and an appendix of full text source documents, including education related legislation, international treaties, and testing methods. 8 volumes.

Encyclopedia of Food and Culture
Encyclopedia of Food and Culture

Encyclopedia of Food and Culture

A three-volume survey of food and its place in human culture and society, presented through 600 alphabetically sorted entries. Features multidisciplinary coverage of such topics as comfort food, ethnicity and food, medieval banquets, and nutrient composition, among many others. Includes photographs, illustrations, sidebars, recipes, menus, and timelines. For students and general readers.

Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. 2

English-language reference source for philosophy," has been the cornerstone of the philosophy reference shelf. Lauded for its clear and accessible presentation of wide-ranging philosophical subjects, the Encyclopedia has earned its place as a first-stop resource for general readers, students and educators.

Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. 2

The second edition of a resource that is considered a standard reference in the field. Presents a cross-cultural approach that emphasizes religion's role within everyday life and as a unique experience from culture to culture. The original 2,750 entries have been retained, many heavily updated, and approximately 600 entirely new articles have been added by an international team of scholars and contributors.

Encyclopedia of Terrorism
Encyclopedia of Terrorism

Encyclopedia of Terrorism

Provides detailed discussions of the who, what, where, when, and why of terrorism, including definitions of key terms, famous cases, biographies, laws, and law enforcement techniques. Features a detailed chronology; photographs, maps, and charts; lists of solved and unsolved cases; known extremist and terrorist groups; key anniversaries and birthdays important to terrorist groups; a chronology of incidents in the United States; and a directory of organizations.

Encyclopedia of World Biography, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of World Biography, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of World Biography, ed. 2

A multicultural biographical source that covers notable individuals from every part of the world and from all time periods who have made significant contributions to human culture.

Encyclopedia of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era
Encyclopedia of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era

Encyclopedia of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era

This reference provides definitive coverage of the social and cultural developments of the period, as well as its political and economic history. This work features hundreds of detailed entries on issues, events, people, and ideas, and includes original documents, sidebar features, and in-depth essays on major themes and developments.

Encyclopedia of the Great Depression and the New Deal
Encyclopedia of the Great Depression and the New Deal

Encyclopedia of the Great Depression and the New Deal

This reference traces all the major political, economic, social, and cultural movements, as well as the principal events, people, and institutions, of the longest and most severe economic crisis in U.S. history.

Encyclopedia of the Jazz Age
Encyclopedia of the Jazz Age

Encyclopedia of the Jazz Age

Extending from the end of World War I in 1918 to the Wall Street crash in 1929, the Jazz Age was a time of frenetic energy and unprecedented historical developments. This reference offers in-depth coverage of one of the most fascinating and widely studied periods in American history.

Endangered Species, ed. 2
Endangered Species, ed. 2

Endangered Species, ed. 2

Including the addition of 25 new species, this new 2nd edition is completely updated to reflect the changes in endangered and threatened status. Color photographs and maps provide further illustrate the many species threatened by extinction, including amphibians, birds, crustaceans, fish, insects, mammals, mollusks, reptiles, and more. Each entry gives a species description, location, reason for endangerment, and measures being taken to prevent it from extinction.

Environmental Encyclopedia, ed. 4
Environmental Encyclopedia, ed. 4

Environmental Encyclopedia, ed. 4

Provides in-depth, worldwide coverage of environmental issues. Each article is written in a nontechnical style and provides current status, analysis, and suggested solutions whenever possible.

Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages
Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages

Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages

Provides a broad overview of costume traditions of diverse cultures from prehistoric times to the present day. Examines more than 430 items of human decoration and adornment, ranging from togas to turbans, necklaces to tennis shoes. Explores how and why items were created, the people who made them, and their uses. This set shows how clothing, headwear, body decorations, and footwear reflect the different cultural, religious, and societal beliefs.

Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature
Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature

Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature

Covers world authors from many periods and genres, building an understanding of the various contexts -- from the biographical to the literary to the historical -- in which literature can be viewed. Identifies the significant literary devices and global themes that define a writer's style and place the author in a larger literary tradition as chronicled and evaluated by critics over time.

Gale Encyclopedia of American Law, ed. 3
Gale Encyclopedia of American Law, ed. 3

Gale Encyclopedia of American Law, ed. 3

Covers today's leading cases, major statutes, legal terms and concepts, notable persons involved with the law, and important documents. Includes topics such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, capital punishment, domestic violence, gay and lesbian rights, physician-assisted suicide and more.

Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, ed. 3
Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, ed. 3

Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, ed. 3

This encyclopedia fills a much-needed gap between legal texts focusing on the theory and history behind the law and more practical guides dealing with the law and its everyday effect upon its citizens. Containing approximately 200 articles, the Encyclopedia includes: brief descriptions of each issue's historical background, covering important statutes and cases; profiles of various U.S. laws and regulations; and details of how laws and regulations vary from state to state.

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, ed. 3
Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, ed. 3

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, ed. 3

This work includes 23 new ethnic groups and contains 152 revised ethnic entries on specific minority groups in the U.S., with an emphasis on culture (religions, holidays, customs, language) in addition to information on historical background and settlement patterns. The encyclopedia also covers ethnoreligious groups such as Jews, Chaldeans and Amish.

Genetics
Genetics

Genetics

A comprehensive collection of articles on all aspects of genetics, from Mendel to the decoding of the human genome. Explains the workings of genes and chromosomes, genetic diseases, and biotechnology. Also covers the ethical, legal, and social issues connected to genetic science. Includes full-color photos and line drawings, a glossary of scientific terms, and coverage of careers in the field.

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia
Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia

This new supplement explores all aspects of extinctions and extinct life, featuring approximately 80 articles outlining major extinctions and related scientific areas. Entries are written by nationally renowned subject experts specializing in zoology, paleontology, and environmental science. Written for students and general researchers.

Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance

Harlem Renaissance

This authoritative resource presents the people, places and times that defined an era and documents the launch of cultural development among African Americans in 1920s Harlem. This single volume contains almanac and biographies sections with primary source documents in sidebars throughout.

History Behind the Headlines
History Behind the Headlines

History Behind the Headlines

Presents in-depth information on conflicts appearing in today's headlines. Users are provided with historical background and analysis to events to give a greater understanding of the politics, players, and layers of current affairs.

Human Diseases and Conditions, ed. 2
Human Diseases and Conditions, ed. 2

Human Diseases and Conditions, ed. 2

Presents information on numerous diseases and conditions. Articles include a definition of the disease or condition, an explanation of how it works in the body, information on causes, symptoms and diagnosis, treatment or cure, and lifestyles.

International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, ed. 4
International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, ed. 4

International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, ed. 4

Provides thorough coverage of films and filmmakers, including legendary films, actors and actresses, directors, writers and other production artists. Entries include a detailed essay written by an expert; biographies; filmographies; comprehensive credits; major awards; and updated bibliographies, as well as photographs. General and professional audiences.

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Foods and Recipes of the World
Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Foods and Recipes of the World

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Foods and Recipes of the World

This 4-vol. set provides comprehensive coverage of the foods and recipes from 70 representative countries and culture groups worldwide -- from Algeria to Zimbabwe.

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Physical Geography
Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Physical Geography

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Physical Geography

Includes information on physical properties and characteristics of nearly 200 countries. Designed specifically for students in grades 5-12.

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 4
Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 4

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 4

A comprehensive resource designed for comparison of the nations of the world and written expressly for students. Includes information on nation's flag and seal, capital city, title or beginning line of anthem, monetary unit, weights and measures, holidays, time, topography, history, government, industry, and health.

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 4
Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 4

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 4

Provides middle school and high school students with an encyclopedia that gives them all the facts and details on every state in the U.S., including the District of Columbia and U.S. dependencies.

Korean War Reference Library
Korean War Reference Library

Korean War Reference Library

Covers the Korean War by exploring the major topics and events related to the period. The combined Almanac and Primary Sources covers the background of and issues related to the conflict in 13 chapters. Biographies includes 25 biographical entries on major figures from the period and 50 photographs.

Latino History and Culture
Latino History and Culture

Latino History and Culture

This reference work covers the varied national and ethnic groups that make up the Latino population. It explores issues such as labor, immigration, culture, health, education, political activism, art, literature, and family, as well as historical events and developments. A-Z entries cover eras, individuals, organizations and institutions, critical events in U.S. history and the impact of the Latino population, communities and ethnic groups, and key cities and regions.

Mexican-American War
Mexican-American War

Mexican-American War

Covers the period from the U.S. annexation of Texas to the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo (1848), including the battles of the conflict and also the mixed feelings of Americans regarding the war.

Modern American Literature, ed. 5
Modern American Literature, ed. 5

Modern American Literature, ed. 5

Provides insight into the careers of nearly 500 20th-century American writers, including black and women writers. Entries include important critical excerpts, chronologically arranged and collected from a wide variety of sources such as books, scholarly journals, general periodicals and newspapers.

New Dictionary of the History of Ideas
New Dictionary of the History of Ideas

New Dictionary of the History of Ideas

A six-volume survey of the history of Western thought and culture, presented through 700 alphabetically arranged entries. Each entry explores the origin, cultural interpretations, and historical themes of such subjects as beauty, love, feminism, diversity, and social capital, among many others. For students and general readers.

Novels for Students, v. 1
Novels for Students, v. 1

Novels for Students, v. 1

Provides critical overviews of novels from various cultures and time periods. Includes discussions of plot, characters, themes and structure as well as the work's cultural and historical significance.

Political Theories for Students
Political Theories for Students

Political Theories for Students

In-depth information on major political theories and systems from all time periods. Each entry begins with a general overview of the system/theory followed by a discussion of the principal aspects of the theory, the theory's philosophy and an analysis of the historical context in which the theory was developed, including critical response.

Postwar America
Postwar America

Postwar America

This reference work provides coverage of the developments in U.S. affairs from the outbreak of the Cold War to the early twenty-first century, as well as their far-reaching effects on the rest of the world. A-Z entries shed light on notable events, movements, organizations, geographical locations, concepts, and artistic, cultural, and scientific trends.

Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film
Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film

Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film

This reference provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to film and film studies, covering such aspects as production, national traditions, studios, genres, critical theory and film history.

Scholarships, Fellowships and Loans, ed. 29
Scholarships, Fellowships and Loans, ed. 29

Scholarships, Fellowships and Loans, ed. 29

Provides comprehensive information on sources of education-related financial aid sponsored and administered by private organizations and companies. Covers a variety of programs in all educational areas, including area and ethnic studies, business, computer science, education, liberal arts, medicine, physical sciences, theology and religion, and more. Intended for students and others interested in education funding.

Shakespeare for Students, ed. 2
Shakespeare for Students, ed. 2

Shakespeare for Students, ed. 2

Collection of essays by Shakespeare scholars that have been selected for students at the high school or undergraduate college level. Each entry includes an introduction; a plot synopsis; a character list; a discussion of the work's principal themes; information about the style and literary devices used; a conversation about the work's historical context; and a critical overview.

Social Issues in America
Social Issues in America

Social Issues in America

This work covers hotly contested social issues in America today—everything from abortion, academic freedom, and affirmative action to consumer debt, homeland security, illegal immigration, poverty and wealth, reproductive rights, and terrorism. Each entry discusses the historical origins of a particular debate or controversy; the means for dealing with it in the past; current perspectives and arguments; and the implications for society in the near- and long-term future.

Sports in America from Colonial Times to the Twenty-First Century
Sports in America from Colonial Times to the Twenty-First Century

Sports in America from Colonial Times to the Twenty-First Century

This encyclopedia presents a social, cultural, and economic history of American sports from hunting, bowling, and skating in the 16th century to televised professional sports today. Nearly 400 articles examine historical and cultural aspects of leagues, teams, institutions, major competitions, the media and other related industries, as well as legal and social issues, economic factors, ethnic and racial participation, and the growth of institutions and venues.

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture
St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture

Includes more than 2,700 signed essays ranging from 500 to 2,500 words, written by subject experts and edited to form a consistent, readable, and straightforward reference. Entries include subject-specific bibliographies and, where appropriate, photographs and textual cross-references to related essays.

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, ed. 2
St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, ed. 2

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, ed. 2

Includes more than 3,036 signed essays (300 of them new), alphabetically arranged, and written or reviewed by subject experts and edited to form a consistent, readable, and straightforward reference. Entries cover topics and persons in major areas of popular culture: film; music; print culture; social life; sports; television and radio; and art and performance (which include theater, dance, stand-up comedy, and other live performance).

Supreme Court Drama, ed. 2
Supreme Court Drama, ed. 2

Supreme Court Drama, ed. 2

Profiles major U.S. Supreme Court decisions that have made a significant impact on American society. Each volume is organized by broad legal principles such as individual liberties, criminal justice and family law, equal protection and civil rights, and business and government law. Within this framework, case entries are arranged under the more specific legal issue to which they relate, such as affirmative action, capital punishment, freedom of speech, and monopolies.

The African American Almanac, ed. 9
The African American Almanac, ed. 9

The African American Almanac, ed. 9

Provides historical and current information on African American history, society, and culture in 28 topical chapters. Includes a chronology, a chapter of important primary documents, directories of organizations and businesses, a bibliography of recently-published works, annotated lists of crucial court cases, a filmography, hundreds of brief biographies, and more than 650 photographs, illustrations, maps, and statistical charts within the text.

The Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights

Multi-volume series that highlights the living and breathing nature of the Bill of Rights. Traces evolution of the freedoms codified in the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution throughout American history to the present. Includes discussion and chronology of relevant Supreme Court rulings, as well as analysis of key controversies or perspectives. Secondary sources, including magazine articles and book excerpts, add an additional layer of analysis and commentary.

The Civil War Era and Reconstruction
The Civil War Era and Reconstruction

The Civil War Era and Reconstruction

This work focuses on non-military aspects of life from the attack on Fort Sumter in April 1861 to the end of Reconstruction in 1877, addressing themes and day-to-day events from multiple perspectives—Northerners and Southerners, slaves and freedmen; plantation owners and abolitionists; frontier settlers and factory workers; Native Americans, women, children, and immigrant groups--in politics, business, science, technology, medicine, family, religion, culture, and the arts.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health, ed. 2
The Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health, ed. 2

The Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health, ed. 2

Provides in-depth coverage of pediatric diseases and disorders, with issues related to physical and cognitive and behavioral development. Covers every major body system. There is a distinct emphasis on health issues affecting children under the age of four.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders
The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders

The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders

Provides clear, complete information on genetic disorders, including conditions, tests, procedures, treatments and therapies, in articles that are both comprehensive and easy to understand in language accessible to laypersons.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, ed. 4
The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, ed. 4

The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, ed. 4

Includes information on more than 1,700 medical disorders and concepts. Each article includes in-depth discussion of causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, procedures, and other related topics. Written for a general audience with an authoritative tone.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders
The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders

The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders

Provides understandable yet detailed information on mental disorders and conditions, written in language understandable to the adult layperson. Includes entries for all 150 disorders classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). It also features entries for prescription, alternative and over-the-counter drugs, as well as the various therapies used to treat mental disorders.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health, ed. 3
The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health, ed. 3

The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health, ed. 3

Provides detailed information on mental disorders and conditions. Also features entries for prescription, alternative and over-the-counter drugs, as well as the various therapies used to treat mental disorders.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, ed. 3
The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, ed. 3

The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, ed. 3

This set provides more than 1,000 entries covering topics in nursing and allied health written for students and professionals in the field. Alphabetically arranged entries cover topics in body systems and functions, conditions and common diseases, contemporary health care issues and theories, techniques and practices, and devices and equipment. Covers all major health professions, including nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and respiratory therapy.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Public Health
The Gale Encyclopedia of Public Health

The Gale Encyclopedia of Public Health

Alphabetically arranged encyclopedia provides coverage of important public health concerns. Topics include diseases and conditions, health and wellness efforts, nutrition, ethics and law related topics and statistics, sanitation issues, and everyday environmental effects.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery and Medical Tests, ed. 3
The Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery and Medical Tests, ed. 3

The Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery and Medical Tests, ed. 3

Provides coverage of numerous surgical procedures, medical tests and related topics, such as anesthetics, common lab test and procedures, medications and postoperative care. Entries for medical test and surgical include definition; purpose; demographic information; diagnosis/preparation; aftercare; risks; morbidity and mortality rates; alternatives; and more.

U.S. Immigration and Migration Reference Library
U.S. Immigration and Migration Reference Library

U.S. Immigration and Migration Reference Library

Chronicles and interpretations of the phenomenal waves of immigration to the United States from the earliest times through the period from 1820 to 1930, when the United States was the destination of some 60% of the world's immigrants -- up to the present day, when restrictive policies have temporarily stanched the flow of immigrants.

UXL American Decades
UXL American Decades

UXL American Decades

This series covers 20th-century events and social history beginning in 1900 and ending in 1999, written expressly for middle school students. Each decade is covered in one volume. Topics for each decade include: Headline Makers, Topics in the News, Arts and Entertainment, Business and the Economy, Education, Government, Politics, and Law, Lifestyles and Social Trends, Medicine and Health, Science and Technology, and Sports.

UXL Complete Health Resource
UXL Complete Health Resource

UXL Complete Health Resource

Covers the causes symptoms, diagnoses, tests, treatments and prognoses of health problems; the main systems of the human body, including the circulatory system, the endocrine system, special senses and much more; and a detailed examination of nutrition, and medical and mental health issues.

UXL Encyclopedia of Biomes
UXL Encyclopedia of Biomes

UXL Encyclopedia of Biomes

Offers students and researchers comprehensive information on 12 of the Earth's major biomes and its many component ecosystems. Includes entries on land and water biomes, and covers climate, vegetation, animal life, food web, plant and animal adaptations, endangered species, human effects on the biome, and more.

UXL Encyclopedia of Drugs and Addictive Substances
UXL Encyclopedia of Drugs and Addictive Substances

UXL Encyclopedia of Drugs and Addictive Substances

Provides detailed information on 52 drugs and other addictive substances, defined as illegal drugs, legal addictive drugs and other substances as well as commonly abused classes of prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Statistics highlight each entry and sidebars provide information on the legal, historical or social aspects of the particular drug. Difficult words are defined within the text. Appropriate for middle school students.

UXL Encyclopedia of Landforms and Other Geologic Features
UXL Encyclopedia of Landforms and Other Geologic Features

UXL Encyclopedia of Landforms and Other Geologic Features

Focuses on the physical and geological aspects, structure, and features of 48 of the earth's landforms - what they are, how they look, how they were created, how they change over time, and major geological events associated with them. Written for middle school students to support earth science and landform-related assignments, alphabetically arranged entries follow a standard and consistent subheaded format; and range in length from 9 to 11 pages.

Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience
Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience

Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience

This work presents contemporary and historical views on Asian America and Pacific Islanders, conveyed through the voices of the men and women who lived these experiences over more than 150 years.

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 13
Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 13

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 13

Presents easy-to-understand information on 194 countries and dependencies from around the world. Entries discuss a variety of topics in detail, from banking and securities to climate, from government data to demographic statistics. Also includes biographical essays on national leaders.

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 6
Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 6

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 6

Details current geographical, social, and political data, historical narrative, and statistical information on the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Caribbean and Pacific dependencies of the U.S. Each entry consistently contains data on 50 rubrics. Maps, tables, flags and official state seals included.

History

Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students
Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students

Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students

A general resource for African research for students at the high-school level or higher. Consists of 450 alphabetically arranged entries covering countries, regions, geographic features, cultural groups, personalities, and general subjects such as body adornment and clothing, oral tradition, and writing systems. Includes timelines, definitions and quick-reference fact boxes.

American Decades
American Decades

American Decades

Cross-disciplinary source for junior and high school students and teachers, public librarians and general researchers who need to document and analyze periods of contemporary American social history (1900-1999).

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 1
American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 1

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 1

Includes essays on events, publications, lifestyles and individuals important to the era of industrial development in U.S. history.

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 2
American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 2

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 2

Includes essays on events, publications, lifestyles and individuals important to the Civil War and Reconstruction Era in U.S. history.

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 3
American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 3

American Eras: Primary Sources, v. 3

Includes essays on events, publications, lifestyles and individuals important to the Westward Expansion Era in U.S. history.

Ancient Greece and Rome
Ancient Greece and Rome

Ancient Greece and Rome

Covers an extensive array of topics on ancient Greece and Rome including daily life, art and architecture, philosophy, science, religion, statesmen, military leaders, emperors, and more.

Asian and Pacific Islander Americans
Asian and Pacific Islander Americans

Asian and Pacific Islander Americans

Features 567 essays covering Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, from the late eighteenth century through the early twenty-first century, famous for their work in such fields as entertainment, sports, civil rights, politics, and literature.

Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America
Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America

Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America

The hairstyles, slang terms, advertising jingles, pop music sensations, and all else described as popular culture is covered in this five-volume reference. Arranged chronologically by decade and by broad topics within each decade, this set focuses solely on the popular culture of the twentieth century, offering more detailed information on trends and fads than any other resource. Written specifically for students in grades 5 through 12.

Colonial America
Colonial America

Colonial America

This book captures the people, institutions, ideas, and events that helped establish and define the United States of America. While it focuses on the thirteen British colonies along the Atlantic Coast, Colonial America sets this history in a larger context. Entries also cover Canada, the American Southwest and Mexico, and the Caribbean and Atlantic world as they impacted the history of the thirteen colonies.

Colonial America Reference Library
Colonial America Reference Library

Colonial America Reference Library

The Colonial America Reference Library provides students with the comprehensive information on the Colonial American period they need to write reports and class assignments including biographical profiles and primary source documents.

Daily Life during African American Migrations
Daily Life during African American Migrations

Daily Life during African American Migrations

This book focuses attention to the everyday social, cultural, and political lives of migrants in the United States as they established communities far away from their former homes.

Elizabethan World Reference Library
Elizabethan World Reference Library

Elizabethan World Reference Library

Provides background and information on the culture and history of the Elizabethan period, biographies of significant men and women of the time, and primary sources that represent some of the most significant and studied documents of the era.

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, ed. 2

A five-volume set and supplement covering all aspects of the African-American experience from 1619 to the present day. Using biographies, historical essays, and thematic pieces, many written by foremost scholars, it addresses a wide array of subjects in over 2,300 articles to define in one source the cultural roots, participation in American life, and current condition of the African-American community.

Encyclopedia of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era
Encyclopedia of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era

Encyclopedia of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era

This reference provides definitive coverage of the social and cultural developments of the period, as well as its political and economic history. This work features hundreds of detailed entries on issues, events, people, and ideas, and includes original documents, sidebar features, and in-depth essays on major themes and developments.

Encyclopedia of the Great Depression and the New Deal
Encyclopedia of the Great Depression and the New Deal

Encyclopedia of the Great Depression and the New Deal

This reference traces all the major political, economic, social, and cultural movements, as well as the principal events, people, and institutions, of the longest and most severe economic crisis in U.S. history.

Encyclopedia of the Jazz Age
Encyclopedia of the Jazz Age

Encyclopedia of the Jazz Age

Extending from the end of World War I in 1918 to the Wall Street crash in 1929, the Jazz Age was a time of frenetic energy and unprecedented historical developments. This reference offers in-depth coverage of one of the most fascinating and widely studied periods in American history.

Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages
Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages

Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages

Provides a broad overview of costume traditions of diverse cultures from prehistoric times to the present day. Examines more than 430 items of human decoration and adornment, ranging from togas to turbans, necklaces to tennis shoes. Explores how and why items were created, the people who made them, and their uses. This set shows how clothing, headwear, body decorations, and footwear reflect the different cultural, religious, and societal beliefs.

Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance

Harlem Renaissance

This authoritative resource presents the people, places and times that defined an era and documents the launch of cultural development among African Americans in 1920s Harlem. This single volume contains almanac and biographies sections with primary source documents in sidebars throughout.

History Behind the Headlines
History Behind the Headlines

History Behind the Headlines

Presents in-depth information on conflicts appearing in today's headlines. Users are provided with historical background and analysis to events to give a greater understanding of the politics, players, and layers of current affairs.

Korean War Reference Library
Korean War Reference Library

Korean War Reference Library

Covers the Korean War by exploring the major topics and events related to the period. The combined Almanac and Primary Sources covers the background of and issues related to the conflict in 13 chapters. Biographies includes 25 biographical entries on major figures from the period and 50 photographs.

Mexican-American War
Mexican-American War

Mexican-American War

Covers the period from the U.S. annexation of Texas to the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo (1848), including the battles of the conflict and also the mixed feelings of Americans regarding the war.

New Dictionary of the History of Ideas
New Dictionary of the History of Ideas

New Dictionary of the History of Ideas

A six-volume survey of the history of Western thought and culture, presented through 700 alphabetically arranged entries. Each entry explores the origin, cultural interpretations, and historical themes of such subjects as beauty, love, feminism, diversity, and social capital, among many others. For students and general readers.

Postwar America
Postwar America

Postwar America

This reference work provides coverage of the developments in U.S. affairs from the outbreak of the Cold War to the early twenty-first century, as well as their far-reaching effects on the rest of the world. A-Z entries shed light on notable events, movements, organizations, geographical locations, concepts, and artistic, cultural, and scientific trends.

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture
St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture

Includes more than 2,700 signed essays ranging from 500 to 2,500 words, written by subject experts and edited to form a consistent, readable, and straightforward reference. Entries include subject-specific bibliographies and, where appropriate, photographs and textual cross-references to related essays.

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, ed. 2
St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, ed. 2

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, ed. 2

Includes more than 3,036 signed essays (300 of them new), alphabetically arranged, and written or reviewed by subject experts and edited to form a consistent, readable, and straightforward reference. Entries cover topics and persons in major areas of popular culture: film; music; print culture; social life; sports; television and radio; and art and performance (which include theater, dance, stand-up comedy, and other live performance).

Supreme Court Drama, ed. 2
Supreme Court Drama, ed. 2

Supreme Court Drama, ed. 2

Profiles major U.S. Supreme Court decisions that have made a significant impact on American society. Each volume is organized by broad legal principles such as individual liberties, criminal justice and family law, equal protection and civil rights, and business and government law. Within this framework, case entries are arranged under the more specific legal issue to which they relate, such as affirmative action, capital punishment, freedom of speech, and monopolies.

The Civil War Era and Reconstruction
The Civil War Era and Reconstruction

The Civil War Era and Reconstruction

This work focuses on non-military aspects of life from the attack on Fort Sumter in April 1861 to the end of Reconstruction in 1877, addressing themes and day-to-day events from multiple perspectives—Northerners and Southerners, slaves and freedmen; plantation owners and abolitionists; frontier settlers and factory workers; Native Americans, women, children, and immigrant groups--in politics, business, science, technology, medicine, family, religion, culture, and the arts.

U.S. Immigration and Migration Reference Library
U.S. Immigration and Migration Reference Library

U.S. Immigration and Migration Reference Library

Chronicles and interpretations of the phenomenal waves of immigration to the United States from the earliest times through the period from 1820 to 1930, when the United States was the destination of some 60% of the world's immigrants -- up to the present day, when restrictive policies have temporarily stanched the flow of immigrants.

UXL American Decades
UXL American Decades

UXL American Decades

This series covers 20th-century events and social history beginning in 1900 and ending in 1999, written expressly for middle school students. Each decade is covered in one volume. Topics for each decade include: Headline Makers, Topics in the News, Arts and Entertainment, Business and the Economy, Education, Government, Politics, and Law, Lifestyles and Social Trends, Medicine and Health, Science and Technology, and Sports.

Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience
Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience

Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience

This work presents contemporary and historical views on Asian America and Pacific Islanders, conveyed through the voices of the men and women who lived these experiences over more than 150 years.

Multicultural Studies

African American Eras
African American Eras

African American Eras

Covers a different era of importance to African American culture and includes the events, lifestyles, social history, and key figures unique to that time; included are eyewitness accounts and primary documents.

African American Eras
African American Eras

African American Eras

Covers the time period of 1865 through 1965; topics include the arts, medicine and health, education, religion, government and politics, law, and trade related to the African American experience.

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, ed. 2

A five-volume set and supplement covering all aspects of the African-American experience from 1619 to the present day. Using biographies, historical essays, and thematic pieces, many written by foremost scholars, it addresses a wide array of subjects in over 2,300 articles to define in one source the cultural roots, participation in American life, and current condition of the African-American community.

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, ed. 3
Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, ed. 3

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, ed. 3

This work includes 23 new ethnic groups and contains 152 revised ethnic entries on specific minority groups in the U.S., with an emphasis on culture (religions, holidays, customs, language) in addition to information on historical background and settlement patterns. The encyclopedia also covers ethnoreligious groups such as Jews, Chaldeans and Amish.

Latino History and Culture
Latino History and Culture

Latino History and Culture

This reference work covers the varied national and ethnic groups that make up the Latino population. It explores issues such as labor, immigration, culture, health, education, political activism, art, literature, and family, as well as historical events and developments. A-Z entries cover eras, individuals, organizations and institutions, critical events in U.S. history and the impact of the Latino population, communities and ethnic groups, and key cities and regions.

The African American Almanac, ed. 9
The African American Almanac, ed. 9

The African American Almanac, ed. 9

Provides historical and current information on African American history, society, and culture in 28 topical chapters. Includes a chronology, a chapter of important primary documents, directories of organizations and businesses, a bibliography of recently-published works, annotated lists of crucial court cases, a filmography, hundreds of brief biographies, and more than 650 photographs, illustrations, maps, and statistical charts within the text.

Science

Alternative Energy
Alternative Energy

Alternative Energy

This three-volume set introduces students to issues surrounding both current energy sources and alternative energy options. While there is significant discussion of the non-renewable resources now used to meet the majority of the world's energy needs (oil, coal and natural gas), the primary focus of the set is on newer options to meet the ever-growing demand.

Bioethics, ed. 4
Bioethics, ed. 4

Bioethics, ed. 4

Offers hundreds of revisions or addenda to entries from previous editions as well as new or revised entries on topics such as key cases in bioethics, the human biome, genetically modified foods, emergency preparedness and response, social justice, sustainability, chemical warfare and torture, among many others. Revised articles explain the events as well as legislation changes of the past decade. Previous editions published as the Encyclopedia of Bioethics.

Biology
Biology

Biology

Explains biological concepts and explores related fields as well as the history of biological science. Discusses critical issues such as embryogenesis and commercial applications of research in biology and addresses ethical issues. Provides information on careers in biology and contains color illustrations, sidebars, bibliographies, timelines, charts, and a glossary.

CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa
CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa

CDs, Super Glue, and Salsa

Provides descriptions of household and high-interest products, step-by-step descriptions of manufacturing processes, and sidebars with additional information. Covers for each entry: why there was a need, who invented it, how it is made, what it is made of, and how it works. Includes photographs, illustrations and line drawings, and a glossary of definitions.

Computer Sciences
Computer Sciences

Computer Sciences

Reviews the history of computer science, discusses concepts, and profiles contributors in the field. Also explores the impact of computers on society, with examples in literature and film to illustrate and support trends. Includes illustrations, sidebars, bibliographies, filmographies, timelines, charts, and a glossary. For general audiences.

Genetics
Genetics

Genetics

A comprehensive collection of articles on all aspects of genetics, from Mendel to the decoding of the human genome. Explains the workings of genes and chromosomes, genetic diseases, and biotechnology. Also covers the ethical, legal, and social issues connected to genetic science. Includes full-color photos and line drawings, a glossary of scientific terms, and coverage of careers in the field.

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia
Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia

This new supplement explores all aspects of extinctions and extinct life, featuring approximately 80 articles outlining major extinctions and related scientific areas. Entries are written by nationally renowned subject experts specializing in zoology, paleontology, and environmental science. Written for students and general researchers.

UXL Encyclopedia of Biomes
UXL Encyclopedia of Biomes

UXL Encyclopedia of Biomes

Offers students and researchers comprehensive information on 12 of the Earth's major biomes and its many component ecosystems. Includes entries on land and water biomes, and covers climate, vegetation, animal life, food web, plant and animal adaptations, endangered species, human effects on the biome, and more.

Environment

Alternative Energy
Alternative Energy

Alternative Energy

This three-volume set introduces students to issues surrounding both current energy sources and alternative energy options. While there is significant discussion of the non-renewable resources now used to meet the majority of the world's energy needs (oil, coal and natural gas), the primary focus of the set is on newer options to meet the ever-growing demand.

Endangered Species, ed. 2
Endangered Species, ed. 2

Endangered Species, ed. 2

Including the addition of 25 new species, this new 2nd edition is completely updated to reflect the changes in endangered and threatened status. Color photographs and maps provide further illustrate the many species threatened by extinction, including amphibians, birds, crustaceans, fish, insects, mammals, mollusks, reptiles, and more. Each entry gives a species description, location, reason for endangerment, and measures being taken to prevent it from extinction.

Environmental Encyclopedia, ed. 4
Environmental Encyclopedia, ed. 4

Environmental Encyclopedia, ed. 4

Provides in-depth, worldwide coverage of environmental issues. Each article is written in a nontechnical style and provides current status, analysis, and suggested solutions whenever possible.

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia
Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia

This new supplement explores all aspects of extinctions and extinct life, featuring approximately 80 articles outlining major extinctions and related scientific areas. Entries are written by nationally renowned subject experts specializing in zoology, paleontology, and environmental science. Written for students and general researchers.

UXL Encyclopedia of Biomes
UXL Encyclopedia of Biomes

UXL Encyclopedia of Biomes

Offers students and researchers comprehensive information on 12 of the Earth's major biomes and its many component ecosystems. Includes entries on land and water biomes, and covers climate, vegetation, animal life, food web, plant and animal adaptations, endangered species, human effects on the biome, and more.

UXL Encyclopedia of Landforms and Other Geologic Features
UXL Encyclopedia of Landforms and Other Geologic Features

UXL Encyclopedia of Landforms and Other Geologic Features

Focuses on the physical and geological aspects, structure, and features of 48 of the earth's landforms - what they are, how they look, how they were created, how they change over time, and major geological events associated with them. Written for middle school students to support earth science and landform-related assignments, alphabetically arranged entries follow a standard and consistent subheaded format; and range in length from 9 to 11 pages.

Social Science

American Countercultures
American Countercultures

American Countercultures

This reference work examines the impact of countercultural movements on American social history, from colonial times to the present. It highlights the writings, recordings, and visual works produced by these movements to educate, inspire, and incite action throughout the nation's history. A–Z entries provide information on personalities, places, events, concepts, beliefs, groups, and practices.

Bioethics, ed. 4
Bioethics, ed. 4

Bioethics, ed. 4

Offers hundreds of revisions or addenda to entries from previous editions as well as new or revised entries on topics such as key cases in bioethics, the human biome, genetically modified foods, emergency preparedness and response, social justice, sustainability, chemical warfare and torture, among many others. Revised articles explain the events as well as legislation changes of the past decade. Previous editions published as the Encyclopedia of Bioethics.

Encyclopedia of American Social Movements
Encyclopedia of American Social Movements

Encyclopedia of American Social Movements

This reference work examines significant social movements in American history, covering each movement’s goals, tactics, and effects, as well as its successes and failures. It also examines the interrelationships among different movements and how they shaped American politics, culture, and society. Also featured are biographical portraits of leaders and key figures of the nation’s social movements, as well as a variety of original documents.

Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society
Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society

Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society

This 3-vol. set presents the social and cultural history of childhood from antiquity to the present. Children and Childhood examines this history through articles on education, parenting, child labor, economics, images of childhood, children's literature, play, toys and games, health, physiology, law, the criminal justice system and social welfare.

Political Theories for Students
Political Theories for Students

Political Theories for Students

In-depth information on major political theories and systems from all time periods. Each entry begins with a general overview of the system/theory followed by a discussion of the principal aspects of the theory, the theory's philosophy and an analysis of the historical context in which the theory was developed, including critical response.

Social Issues in America
Social Issues in America

Social Issues in America

This work covers hotly contested social issues in America today—everything from abortion, academic freedom, and affirmative action to consumer debt, homeland security, illegal immigration, poverty and wealth, reproductive rights, and terrorism. Each entry discusses the historical origins of a particular debate or controversy; the means for dealing with it in the past; current perspectives and arguments; and the implications for society in the near- and long-term future.

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture
St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture

Includes more than 2,700 signed essays ranging from 500 to 2,500 words, written by subject experts and edited to form a consistent, readable, and straightforward reference. Entries include subject-specific bibliographies and, where appropriate, photographs and textual cross-references to related essays.

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, ed. 2
St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, ed. 2

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, ed. 2

Includes more than 3,036 signed essays (300 of them new), alphabetically arranged, and written or reviewed by subject experts and edited to form a consistent, readable, and straightforward reference. Entries cover topics and persons in major areas of popular culture: film; music; print culture; social life; sports; television and radio; and art and performance (which include theater, dance, stand-up comedy, and other live performance).

Nation and World

American Countercultures
American Countercultures

American Countercultures

This reference work examines the impact of countercultural movements on American social history, from colonial times to the present. It highlights the writings, recordings, and visual works produced by these movements to educate, inspire, and incite action throughout the nation's history. A–Z entries provide information on personalities, places, events, concepts, beliefs, groups, and practices.

American Presidential Campaigns and Elections
American Presidential Campaigns and Elections

American Presidential Campaigns and Elections

This reference work provides coverage of every presidential election campaign in American history, from 1788-1789 through 2012. The section on each election includes profiles of the major candidates, maps and tables of the voting results, a chronology of key events, a selection of primary-source documents (speeches, party platforms, letters, songs, and the like), and recommended readings.

Countries and Their Cultures
Countries and Their Cultures

Countries and Their Cultures

Presents the cultural similarities within a country that set it apart from others by examining over 200 countries to document the myriad ways in which culture defines and separates the nations of the world as much as geographical borders do. Surveys each country's shared values, behaviors and cultural variations from foods and rituals to pastimes and arts, using a standard entry format for easy comparison. Provides illustrations, photographs and maps. 4 volumes.

Encyclopedia of American Folklife
Encyclopedia of American Folklife

Encyclopedia of American Folklife

This encyclopedia explores the rich and varied cultural traditions of folklife in America. Entries cover major cities and urban centers; new and established immigrant groups as well as Native Americans; U.S. states and territories; social issues, such as education and intellectual property; and expressions of material culture, such as homes, dress, food, and crafts. It addresses religious groups and the diversity within them, diverse age groups, and contemporary folk groups.

Encyclopedia of American Social Movements
Encyclopedia of American Social Movements

Encyclopedia of American Social Movements

This reference work examines significant social movements in American history, covering each movement’s goals, tactics, and effects, as well as its successes and failures. It also examines the interrelationships among different movements and how they shaped American politics, culture, and society. Also featured are biographical portraits of leaders and key figures of the nation’s social movements, as well as a variety of original documents.

Encyclopedia of Food and Culture
Encyclopedia of Food and Culture

Encyclopedia of Food and Culture

A three-volume survey of food and its place in human culture and society, presented through 600 alphabetically sorted entries. Features multidisciplinary coverage of such topics as comfort food, ethnicity and food, medieval banquets, and nutrient composition, among many others. Includes photographs, illustrations, sidebars, recipes, menus, and timelines. For students and general readers.

Encyclopedia of Terrorism
Encyclopedia of Terrorism

Encyclopedia of Terrorism

Provides detailed discussions of the who, what, where, when, and why of terrorism, including definitions of key terms, famous cases, biographies, laws, and law enforcement techniques. Features a detailed chronology; photographs, maps, and charts; lists of solved and unsolved cases; known extremist and terrorist groups; key anniversaries and birthdays important to terrorist groups; a chronology of incidents in the United States; and a directory of organizations.

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Foods and Recipes of the World
Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Foods and Recipes of the World

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Foods and Recipes of the World

This 4-vol. set provides comprehensive coverage of the foods and recipes from 70 representative countries and culture groups worldwide -- from Algeria to Zimbabwe.

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Physical Geography
Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Physical Geography

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Physical Geography

Includes information on physical properties and characteristics of nearly 200 countries. Designed specifically for students in grades 5-12.

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 4
Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 4

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 4

A comprehensive resource designed for comparison of the nations of the world and written expressly for students. Includes information on nation's flag and seal, capital city, title or beginning line of anthem, monetary unit, weights and measures, holidays, time, topography, history, government, industry, and health.

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 4
Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 4

Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 4

Provides middle school and high school students with an encyclopedia that gives them all the facts and details on every state in the U.S., including the District of Columbia and U.S. dependencies.

Postwar America
Postwar America

Postwar America

This reference work provides coverage of the developments in U.S. affairs from the outbreak of the Cold War to the early twenty-first century, as well as their far-reaching effects on the rest of the world. A-Z entries shed light on notable events, movements, organizations, geographical locations, concepts, and artistic, cultural, and scientific trends.

Social Issues in America
Social Issues in America

Social Issues in America

This work covers hotly contested social issues in America today—everything from abortion, academic freedom, and affirmative action to consumer debt, homeland security, illegal immigration, poverty and wealth, reproductive rights, and terrorism. Each entry discusses the historical origins of a particular debate or controversy; the means for dealing with it in the past; current perspectives and arguments; and the implications for society in the near- and long-term future.

Sports in America from Colonial Times to the Twenty-First Century
Sports in America from Colonial Times to the Twenty-First Century

Sports in America from Colonial Times to the Twenty-First Century

This encyclopedia presents a social, cultural, and economic history of American sports from hunting, bowling, and skating in the 16th century to televised professional sports today. Nearly 400 articles examine historical and cultural aspects of leagues, teams, institutions, major competitions, the media and other related industries, as well as legal and social issues, economic factors, ethnic and racial participation, and the growth of institutions and venues.

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 13
Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 13

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, ed. 13

Presents easy-to-understand information on 194 countries and dependencies from around the world. Entries discuss a variety of topics in detail, from banking and securities to climate, from government data to demographic statistics. Also includes biographical essays on national leaders.

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 6
Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 6

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, ed. 6

Details current geographical, social, and political data, historical narrative, and statistical information on the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Caribbean and Pacific dependencies of the U.S. Each entry consistently contains data on 50 rubrics. Maps, tables, flags and official state seals included.

Law

American Law Yearbook
American Law Yearbook

American Law Yearbook

An annual supplement to the Gale Encyclopedia of American Law that updates and expands the content with new topics, updates, biographies of prominent figures and government appointees, and other features. Each year's edition contains the full U.S. Supreme Court docket in addition to the non-Supreme Court cases. Includes a glossary of legal terms.

American Presidential Campaigns and Elections
American Presidential Campaigns and Elections

American Presidential Campaigns and Elections

This reference work provides coverage of every presidential election campaign in American history, from 1788-1789 through 2012. The section on each election includes profiles of the major candidates, maps and tables of the voting results, a chronology of key events, a selection of primary-source documents (speeches, party platforms, letters, songs, and the like), and recommended readings.

Crime and Punishment in America Reference Library
Crime and Punishment in America Reference Library

Crime and Punishment in America Reference Library

Covering the evolution of the American criminal justice system throughout history, Crime and Punishment in America Reference Library explores everything from juvenile justice to organized crime.

Gale Encyclopedia of American Law, ed. 3
Gale Encyclopedia of American Law, ed. 3

Gale Encyclopedia of American Law, ed. 3

Covers today's leading cases, major statutes, legal terms and concepts, notable persons involved with the law, and important documents. Includes topics such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, capital punishment, domestic violence, gay and lesbian rights, physician-assisted suicide and more.

Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, ed. 3
Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, ed. 3

Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, ed. 3

This encyclopedia fills a much-needed gap between legal texts focusing on the theory and history behind the law and more practical guides dealing with the law and its everyday effect upon its citizens. Containing approximately 200 articles, the Encyclopedia includes: brief descriptions of each issue's historical background, covering important statutes and cases; profiles of various U.S. laws and regulations; and details of how laws and regulations vary from state to state.

Supreme Court Drama, ed. 2
Supreme Court Drama, ed. 2

Supreme Court Drama, ed. 2

Profiles major U.S. Supreme Court decisions that have made a significant impact on American society. Each volume is organized by broad legal principles such as individual liberties, criminal justice and family law, equal protection and civil rights, and business and government law. Within this framework, case entries are arranged under the more specific legal issue to which they relate, such as affirmative action, capital punishment, freedom of speech, and monopolies.

The Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights

Multi-volume series that highlights the living and breathing nature of the Bill of Rights. Traces evolution of the freedoms codified in the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution throughout American history to the present. Includes discussion and chronology of relevant Supreme Court rulings, as well as analysis of key controversies or perspectives. Secondary sources, including magazine articles and book excerpts, add an additional layer of analysis and commentary.

Biography

Asian and Pacific Islander Americans
Asian and Pacific Islander Americans

Asian and Pacific Islander Americans

Features 567 essays covering Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, from the late eighteenth century through the early twenty-first century, famous for their work in such fields as entertainment, sports, civil rights, politics, and literature.

Business Leader Profiles for Students
Business Leader Profiles for Students

Business Leader Profiles for Students

Profiles of significant contributors to business and industry, past and present, written especially for high school students.

Encyclopedia of World Biography, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of World Biography, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of World Biography, ed. 2

A multicultural biographical source that covers notable individuals from every part of the world and from all time periods who have made significant contributions to human culture.

Business

Business Leader Profiles for Students
Business Leader Profiles for Students

Business Leader Profiles for Students

Profiles of significant contributors to business and industry, past and present, written especially for high school students.

CaseBase: Case Studies in Global Business, v. 2
CaseBase: Case Studies in Global Business, v. 2

CaseBase: Case Studies in Global Business, v. 2

Covers business case studies focused on issues in emerging markets and emerging industries across the globe.

Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, ed. 3
Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, ed. 3

Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, ed. 3

Designed for the nonspecialist, the Encyclopedia of Business and Finance is a 2-vol. complete reference covering five general areas: finance and banking; accounting; marketing; management; and information systems. Drawing on practical professional expertise as well as that of noted scholars, the contributors include executives, government administrators and scholars from leading business programs from around the United States.

Education

Career Information Center, ed. 10
Career Information Center, ed. 10

Career Information Center, ed. 10

Provides the most current information available on careers in the United States and Canada to people of all ages and all stages of career development. Each volume covers a career cluster and its common career pathways. Job profiles cover the following: job facts, nature of work, work environment, education, licenses, certification, and training, job outlook, similar occupations, and sources of additional information such as books, audio/visual materials, and organizations.

Encyclopedia of Education, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of Education, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of Education, ed. 2

Offers a complete view of the institutions, people, processes, roles, and philosophies in educational practice in the United States and throughout the world. Features biographies of influential educators; profiles of historic colleges and universities and of organizations active in the field; and an appendix of full text source documents, including education related legislation, international treaties, and testing methods. 8 volumes.

Scholarships, Fellowships and Loans, ed. 29
Scholarships, Fellowships and Loans, ed. 29

Scholarships, Fellowships and Loans, ed. 29

Provides comprehensive information on sources of education-related financial aid sponsored and administered by private organizations and companies. Covers a variety of programs in all educational areas, including area and ethnic studies, business, computer science, education, liberal arts, medicine, physical sciences, theology and religion, and more. Intended for students and others interested in education funding.

Religion

Contemporary American Religion
Contemporary American Religion

Contemporary American Religion

Explores contemporary American religion in all its diversity. In addition to profiling religious groups, from the modern forms of Catholicism and Judaism to cults such as Heaven's Gate and the Branch Davidians, the set includes articles on cultural, social, and legal issues, as well as holidays and celebrations, the arts, and other topics. 2 volumes. For general and academic audiences.

Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. 2

English-language reference source for philosophy," has been the cornerstone of the philosophy reference shelf. Lauded for its clear and accessible presentation of wide-ranging philosophical subjects, the Encyclopedia has earned its place as a first-stop resource for general readers, students and educators.

Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. 2

The second edition of a resource that is considered a standard reference in the field. Presents a cross-cultural approach that emphasizes religion's role within everyday life and as a unique experience from culture to culture. The original 2,750 entries have been retained, many heavily updated, and approximately 600 entirely new articles have been added by an international team of scholars and contributors.

Arts

Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion
Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion

Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion

A survey of clothing, costume and fashion. Coverage includes the origins of clothing and body adornment, the development of fabrics and technologies, and the social meanings of dress, as well as representative costumes from a wide range of historical eras. For students and researchers at the high-school level or higher.

International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, ed. 4
International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, ed. 4

International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, ed. 4

Provides thorough coverage of films and filmmakers, including legendary films, actors and actresses, directors, writers and other production artists. Entries include a detailed essay written by an expert; biographies; filmographies; comprehensive credits; major awards; and updated bibliographies, as well as photographs. General and professional audiences.

Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film
Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film

Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film

This reference provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to film and film studies, covering such aspects as production, national traditions, studios, genres, critical theory and film history.

Medicine

Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior, ed. 2
Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior, ed. 2

Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior, ed. 2

Provides more than 700 articles intended for the student and layperson covering the social, medical and political issues related to drugs and alcohol, as well as types of addiction. Changes since the last edition include the decrease of crack cocaine use and resurgence of heroin use; changes in laws dealing with drug use at the state and national levels; and new discoveries leading to a better understanding of how drugs work and what makes them addictive.

Human Diseases and Conditions, ed. 2
Human Diseases and Conditions, ed. 2

Human Diseases and Conditions, ed. 2

Presents information on numerous diseases and conditions. Articles include a definition of the disease or condition, an explanation of how it works in the body, information on causes, symptoms and diagnosis, treatment or cure, and lifestyles.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health, ed. 2
The Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health, ed. 2

The Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health, ed. 2

Provides in-depth coverage of pediatric diseases and disorders, with issues related to physical and cognitive and behavioral development. Covers every major body system. There is a distinct emphasis on health issues affecting children under the age of four.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders
The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders

The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders

Provides clear, complete information on genetic disorders, including conditions, tests, procedures, treatments and therapies, in articles that are both comprehensive and easy to understand in language accessible to laypersons.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, ed. 4
The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, ed. 4

The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, ed. 4

Includes information on more than 1,700 medical disorders and concepts. Each article includes in-depth discussion of causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, procedures, and other related topics. Written for a general audience with an authoritative tone.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders
The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders

The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders

Provides understandable yet detailed information on mental disorders and conditions, written in language understandable to the adult layperson. Includes entries for all 150 disorders classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). It also features entries for prescription, alternative and over-the-counter drugs, as well as the various therapies used to treat mental disorders.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health, ed. 3
The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health, ed. 3

The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health, ed. 3

Provides detailed information on mental disorders and conditions. Also features entries for prescription, alternative and over-the-counter drugs, as well as the various therapies used to treat mental disorders.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, ed. 3
The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, ed. 3

The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, ed. 3

This set provides more than 1,000 entries covering topics in nursing and allied health written for students and professionals in the field. Alphabetically arranged entries cover topics in body systems and functions, conditions and common diseases, contemporary health care issues and theories, techniques and practices, and devices and equipment. Covers all major health professions, including nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and respiratory therapy.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Public Health
The Gale Encyclopedia of Public Health

The Gale Encyclopedia of Public Health

Alphabetically arranged encyclopedia provides coverage of important public health concerns. Topics include diseases and conditions, health and wellness efforts, nutrition, ethics and law related topics and statistics, sanitation issues, and everyday environmental effects.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery and Medical Tests, ed. 3
The Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery and Medical Tests, ed. 3

The Gale Encyclopedia of Surgery and Medical Tests, ed. 3

Provides coverage of numerous surgical procedures, medical tests and related topics, such as anesthetics, common lab test and procedures, medications and postoperative care. Entries for medical test and surgical include definition; purpose; demographic information; diagnosis/preparation; aftercare; risks; morbidity and mortality rates; alternatives; and more.

UXL Complete Health Resource
UXL Complete Health Resource

UXL Complete Health Resource

Covers the causes symptoms, diagnoses, tests, treatments and prognoses of health problems; the main systems of the human body, including the circulatory system, the endocrine system, special senses and much more; and a detailed examination of nutrition, and medical and mental health issues.

UXL Encyclopedia of Drugs and Addictive Substances
UXL Encyclopedia of Drugs and Addictive Substances

UXL Encyclopedia of Drugs and Addictive Substances

Provides detailed information on 52 drugs and other addictive substances, defined as illegal drugs, legal addictive drugs and other substances as well as commonly abused classes of prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Statistics highlight each entry and sidebars provide information on the legal, historical or social aspects of the particular drug. Difficult words are defined within the text. Appropriate for middle school students.

Literature

Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature
Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature

Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature

Covers world authors from many periods and genres, building an understanding of the various contexts -- from the biographical to the literary to the historical -- in which literature can be viewed. Identifies the significant literary devices and global themes that define a writer's style and place the author in a larger literary tradition as chronicled and evaluated by critics over time.

Modern American Literature, ed. 5
Modern American Literature, ed. 5

Modern American Literature, ed. 5

Provides insight into the careers of nearly 500 20th-century American writers, including black and women writers. Entries include important critical excerpts, chronologically arranged and collected from a wide variety of sources such as books, scholarly journals, general periodicals and newspapers.

Novels for Students, v. 1
Novels for Students, v. 1

Novels for Students, v. 1

Provides critical overviews of novels from various cultures and time periods. Includes discussions of plot, characters, themes and structure as well as the work's cultural and historical significance.

Shakespeare for Students, ed. 2
Shakespeare for Students, ed. 2

Shakespeare for Students, ed. 2

Collection of essays by Shakespeare scholars that have been selected for students at the high school or undergraduate college level. Each entry includes an introduction; a plot synopsis; a character list; a discussion of the work's principal themes; information about the style and literary devices used; a conversation about the work's historical context; and a critical overview.

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