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Refugees, Relief and Resettlement: Forced Migration and World War II

Chronicles the plight of refugees, displaced persons, and immigrants across Europe, North Africa, and Asia from 1935 to 1950 through immigrant and refugee correspondence, studies, reports, organizational and administrative files, and much more. It is the first multi-sourced digital collection to consider the global scope of the forced migration and refugee crisis leading up to, during, and after World War II.

Chronicles the plight of refugees, displaced persons, and immigrants across Europe, North Africa, and Asia from 1935 to 1950 through immigrant and refugee correspondence, studies, reports, organizational and administrative files, and much more. It is the first multi-sourced digital collection to consider the global scope of the forced migration and refugee crisis leading up to, during, and after World War II.

Final Accountability Rosters of Evacuees: Japanese-American Relocation Centers, 1944-1946

The rosters, which are part of the Records of the War Relocation Authority, consist of alphabetical lists of evacuees resident at the relocation centers during the period of their existence. The lists typically provide the following information about the individual evacuees: name, family number, sex, date of birth, marital status, citizenship status, alien registration number, method of original entry into center (from an assembly center, other institution, Hawaii, another relocation center, birth, or other), date of entry, pre-evacuation address, center address, type of final departure (indefinite leave, internment, repatriation, segregation, relocation, or death), date of departure, and final destination. Included for each center are summary tabulations on evacuees resident at the center and on total admissions and departures.

The rosters, which are part of the Records of the War Relocation Authority, consist of alphabetical lists of evacuees resident at the relocation centers during the period of their existence. The lists typically provide the following information about the individual evacuees: name, family number, sex, date of birth, marital status, citizenship status, alien registration number, method of original entry into center (from an assembly center, other institution, Hawaii, another relocation center, birth, or other), date of entry, pre-evacuation address, center address, type of final departure (indefinite leave, internment, repatriation, segregation, relocation, or death), date of departure, and final destination. Included for each center are summary tabulations on evacuees resident at the center and on total admissions and departures.

Japanese American Internment: Records of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

Although histories exist about this chapter in American history, this digital collection of Japanese relocation camp newspapers record the concerns and the day-to-day life of the interned Japanese-Americans. Although articles in these files frequently appear in Japanese, most of the papers are in English or in dual text. Many of the 25 titles constituting this collection are complete or substantially complete.

Although histories exist about this chapter in American history, this digital collection of Japanese relocation camp newspapers record the concerns and the day-to-day life of the interned Japanese-Americans. Although articles in these files frequently appear in Japanese, most of the papers are in English or in dual text. Many of the 25 titles constituting this collection are complete or substantially complete.

Japanese-American Relocation Camp Newspapers: Perspectives on Day-to-Day Life

Although histories exist about this chapter in American history, this digital collection of Japanese relocation camp newspapers record the concerns and the day-to-day life of the interned Japanese-Americans. Articles in these files frequently appear in Japanese, most of the papers are in English or in dual text. Many of the 25 titles constituting this collection are complete or substantially complete. Editions have been carefully collated and omissions are noted. A sampling of titles include: Rohwer Outpost, Poston Chronicle, Gila News Courier, Tulean Dispatch, Granada Pioneer, Minndoka Irrigator, Topaz Times, Manzanar Free Press, Denson Tribune, and Heart Mountain Sentinel.

Although histories exist about this chapter in American history, this digital collection of Japanese relocation camp newspapers record the concerns and the day-to-day life of the interned Japanese-Americans. Articles in these files frequently appear in Japanese, most of the papers are in English or in dual text. Many of the 25 titles constituting this collection are complete or substantially complete. Editions have been carefully collated and omissions are noted. A sampling of titles include: Rohwer Outpost, Poston Chronicle, Gila News Courier, Tulean Dispatch, Granada Pioneer, Minndoka Irrigator, Topaz Times, Manzanar Free Press, Denson Tribune, and Heart Mountain Sentinel.

Personal Justice Denied: Public Hearings of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment, 1981

These documents reflect the Commission's twenty days of hearings and testimonies from more than 750 witnesses between July and December 1981, in cities across the country. These witnesses included Japanese Americans and Aleuts who had lived through the events of WWII, former government officials who ran the internment program, public figures, internees, organizations such as the Japanese American Citizens League, interested citizens, historians, and other professionals who have studied the subjects of the Commission's inquiry. Included also are publications, reports, press releases, photographs, newspaper clippings, and transcripts that relate to the hearings. Many of the transcripts are personal stories of experiences of evacuees.

These documents reflect the Commission's twenty days of hearings and testimonies from more than 750 witnesses between July and December 1981, in cities across the country. These witnesses included Japanese Americans and Aleuts who had lived through the events of WWII, former government officials who ran the internment program, public figures, internees, organizations such as the Japanese American Citizens League, interested citizens, historians, and other professionals who have studied the subjects of the Commission's inquiry. Included also are publications, reports, press releases, photographs, newspaper clippings, and transcripts that relate to the hearings. Many of the transcripts are personal stories of experiences of evacuees.

Correspondence from German Concentration Camps and Prisons

Items originating from prisoners held in German concentration camps, internment and transit camps, Gestapo prisons, and POW camps, during and just prior to World War II.  Most of the collection consists of letters written or received by prisoners, but also includes receipts for parcels, money orders and personal effects; paper currency; and realia, including Star of David badges that Jews were forced to wear. Letters sent to camps: Auschwitz; Buchenwald; Dachau; Flossenburg; Lublin/Majdanek; Mauthausen; Mittelbau; Neuengamme; Ravensbruck; and Sachsenhausen. Letters sent by prisoners from: Auschwitz; Bergen Belsen; Buchenwald; Dachau; Esterwegen; Flossenburg; Fort VII; Gross-Rosen; Herzogenbush; Lublin-Majdanek; Mauthausen-Gusen; Mittelbau-Dora; Natzweiler; Neuengamme; Ravensbruck; Sachsenhausen and Stutthof.

Items originating from prisoners held in German concentration camps, internment and transit camps, Gestapo prisons, and POW camps, during and just prior to World War II.  Most of the collection consists of letters written or received by prisoners, but also includes receipts for parcels, money orders and personal effects; paper currency; and realia, including Star of David badges that Jews were forced to wear. Letters sent to camps: Auschwitz; Buchenwald; Dachau; Flossenburg; Lublin/Majdanek; Mauthausen; Mittelbau; Neuengamme; Ravensbruck; and Sachsenhausen. Letters sent by prisoners from: Auschwitz; Bergen Belsen; Buchenwald; Dachau; Esterwegen; Flossenburg; Fort VII; Gross-Rosen; Herzogenbush; Lublin-Majdanek; Mauthausen-Gusen; Mittelbau-Dora; Natzweiler; Neuengamme; Ravensbruck; Sachsenhausen and Stutthof.

German Anti-Semitic Propaganda, 1909-1941

This collection comprises 170 German-language titles of books and pamphlets. The collection presents anti-Semitism as propaganda in politics, economics, religion, and education. Most of the writings date from the 1920s and 1930s and many are directly connected with Nazi groups. The works are principally anti-Semitic, but include writings on other groups as well, including Jehovah's Witnesses, the Jesuits, and the Freemasons. Also included are history, pseudo-history, and fiction.

This collection comprises 170 German-language titles of books and pamphlets. The collection presents anti-Semitism as propaganda in politics, economics, religion, and education. Most of the writings date from the 1920s and 1930s and many are directly connected with Nazi groups. The works are principally anti-Semitic, but include writings on other groups as well, including Jehovah's Witnesses, the Jesuits, and the Freemasons. Also included are history, pseudo-history, and fiction.

Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees: The West's Response to Jewish Emigration

The Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR) was organized in London in August 1938 as a result of the Evian Conference of July 1938, which had been called by President Roosevelt to consider the problem of racial, religious, and political refugees from central Europe.

The Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR) was organized in London in August 1938 as a result of the Evian Conference of July 1938, which had been called by President Roosevelt to consider the problem of racial, religious, and political refugees from central Europe.

Jewish Underground Resistance: The David Diamant collection

David Diamant is the pseudonym of David Erlich, a Jewish communist and committed member of the underground resistance during World War II. This collection consists of original documents collected by Diamant over a period of approximately 30 years dealing primarily with the Jewish segment of the French underground resistance; many of the documents originate with communist groups, and some deal with Polish groups. Most of the documents are in French, while some are in Yiddish.David Diamant is the pseudonym of David Erlich, a Jewish communist and committed member of the underground resistance during World War II. This collection consists of original documents collected by Diamant over a period of approximately 30 years dealing primarily with the Jewish segment of the French underground resistance; many of the documents originate with communist groups, and some deal with Polish groups. Most of the documents are in French, while some are in Yiddish.

David Diamant is the pseudonym of David Erlich, a Jewish communist and committed member of the underground resistance during World War II. This collection consists of original documents collected by Diamant over a period of approximately 30 years dealing primarily with the Jewish segment of the French underground resistance; many of the documents originate with communist groups, and some deal with Polish groups. Most of the documents are in French, while some are in Yiddish.David Diamant is the pseudonym of David Erlich, a Jewish communist and committed member of the underground resistance during World War II. This collection consists of original documents collected by Diamant over a period of approximately 30 years dealing primarily with the Jewish segment of the French underground resistance; many of the documents originate with communist groups, and some deal with Polish groups. Most of the documents are in French, while some are in Yiddish.

Nazi Bank and Financial Institutions: U.S. Military Government Investigation Reports and Interrogations of Nazi Financiers, 1945-1949

This publication comprises two collections, Records Regarding Bank Investigations and Records Relating to Interrogations of Nazi Financiers, from the records of the Office of the Finance Division and Finance Advisor in the Office of Military Government, U.S. Zone(Germany) (OMGUS), during the period 1945-1949. Records Regarding Bank Investigations, 1945-1949, consists primarily of memorandums, letters, cables, reports, exhibits, newspaper clippings, and civil censorship intercepts on the financing of the German war effort and German financial institutions. The records include reports on Nazi gold, the use of Swiss banks, and links between German and Swiss banks, inclusive of Commerzbank, Deutsche Bank, Deutsche Golddiskontbank, Dresdner Bank, and Reichs-Kredit-Gesellschaft. The investigations contain information regarding Aryanization, bank operations outside of Germany, industrial ties, liquidation proposals, and the restitution of Hungarian property. Records Relating to Interrogations of Nazi Financiers, 1946-1947 consists of interrogation reports and transcripts, exhibits, and questionnaires. Names included are Bernhard Berghaus, Alois Alzheimer, August von Finck, Eduard Hilgard, Kurt Schmitt, and Franz Schwede-Coburg. Also among these records are files relating to Carlowitz & Company and Japanese firms operating in Germany.

This publication comprises two collections, Records Regarding Bank Investigations and Records Relating to Interrogations of Nazi Financiers, from the records of the Office of the Finance Division and Finance Advisor in the Office of Military Government, U.S. Zone(Germany) (OMGUS), during the period 1945-1949. Records Regarding Bank Investigations, 1945-1949, consists primarily of memorandums, letters, cables, reports, exhibits, newspaper clippings, and civil censorship intercepts on the financing of the German war effort and German financial institutions. The records include reports on Nazi gold, the use of Swiss banks, and links between German and Swiss banks, inclusive of Commerzbank, Deutsche Bank, Deutsche Golddiskontbank, Dresdner Bank, and Reichs-Kredit-Gesellschaft. The investigations contain information regarding Aryanization, bank operations outside of Germany, industrial ties, liquidation proposals, and the restitution of Hungarian property. Records Relating to Interrogations of Nazi Financiers, 1946-1947 consists of interrogation reports and transcripts, exhibits, and questionnaires. Names included are Bernhard Berghaus, Alois Alzheimer, August von Finck, Eduard Hilgard, Kurt Schmitt, and Franz Schwede-Coburg. Also among these records are files relating to Carlowitz & Company and Japanese firms operating in Germany.

Nazism in Poland: The Diary of Governor-General Hans Frank

This collection reproduces the Tagebuch or journal of Dr. Hans Frank (1900-1946), the Governor-General of German-occupied Poland from October 1939 until early 1945. The journal is in typed format, in chronological order, covering all aspect of Generalgouvernment (GG) administration from its seat in the royal Wawel castle in Krakau (Kraków). The entries reflect administrative matters, rather than the spontaneous thoughts or feelings usually found in a diary.

This collection reproduces the Tagebuch or journal of Dr. Hans Frank (1900-1946), the Governor-General of German-occupied Poland from October 1939 until early 1945. The journal is in typed format, in chronological order, covering all aspect of Generalgouvernment (GG) administration from its seat in the royal Wawel castle in Krakau (Kraków). The entries reflect administrative matters, rather than the spontaneous thoughts or feelings usually found in a diary.

Nuremburg Laws and Nazi Annulment of Jewish German Nationality

This collection consists of index cards listing the name, date and place of birth, occupation and last address of Jews whose German citizenship was revoked in accordance with the "Nuremberg Laws" of 1935, including Jews from Germany, Austria and Czech Bohemia. The cards are generally in alphabetical order. Suffix names "Israel" for men and "Sara" for women were added by law in 1936 to readily identify persons of Jewish descent.

This collection consists of index cards listing the name, date and place of birth, occupation and last address of Jews whose German citizenship was revoked in accordance with the "Nuremberg Laws" of 1935, including Jews from Germany, Austria and Czech Bohemia. The cards are generally in alphabetical order. Suffix names "Israel" for men and "Sara" for women were added by law in 1936 to readily identify persons of Jewish descent.

SAFEHAVEN Reports on Nazi Looting of Occupied Countries and Assets in Neutral Countries

SAFEHAVEN was the code name of a project of the Foreign Economic Administration, in cooperation with the State Department and the military services, to block the flow of German capital across neutral boundaries and to identify and observe all German overseas investments. The records reproduced in collection consist primarily of reports and letters, cables, and military attaché reports referring to specific SAFEHAVEN reports or SAFEHAVEN-related topics. Such topics include information on alleged art looting; business matters (including alleged patent transfers) pertaining to leading German industrial firms such as Bosch and I.G. Farben; and various Third Reich personalities.

SAFEHAVEN was the code name of a project of the Foreign Economic Administration, in cooperation with the State Department and the military services, to block the flow of German capital across neutral boundaries and to identify and observe all German overseas investments. The records reproduced in collection consist primarily of reports and letters, cables, and military attaché reports referring to specific SAFEHAVEN reports or SAFEHAVEN-related topics. Such topics include information on alleged art looting; business matters (including alleged patent transfers) pertaining to leading German industrial firms such as Bosch and I.G. Farben; and various Third Reich personalities.

Testaments to the Holocaust. Documents and Rare Printed Materials from the Wiener Library, London

Testaments to the Holocaust is the online publication of the archives of the Wiener Library, London, the first archive to collect evidence of the Holocaust and the anti-semitic activities of the German Nazi Party. It contains documentary evidence collected in several different programmes: the eyewitness accounts which were collected before, during and after the Second World War, from people fleeing the Nazi oppression, a large collection of photographs of pre-war Jewish life, the activities of the Nazis, and the ghettoes and camps, a collection of postcards of synagogues in Germany and eastern Europe, most since destroyed, a unique collection of Nazi propaganda publications including a large collection of 'educational' children's' books, and the card index of biographical details of prominent figures in Nazi Germany, many with portrait photographs. Pamphlets, bulletins and journals published by the Wiener Library to record and disseminate the research of the Institute are also included. 75% of the content is written in German.

Testaments to the Holocaust is the online publication of the archives of the Wiener Library, London, the first archive to collect evidence of the Holocaust and the anti-semitic activities of the German Nazi Party. It contains documentary evidence collected in several different programmes: the eyewitness accounts which were collected before, during and after the Second World War, from people fleeing the Nazi oppression, a large collection of photographs of pre-war Jewish life, the activities of the Nazis, and the ghettoes and camps, a collection of postcards of synagogues in Germany and eastern Europe, most since destroyed, a unique collection of Nazi propaganda publications including a large collection of 'educational' children's' books, and the card index of biographical details of prominent figures in Nazi Germany, many with portrait photographs. Pamphlets, bulletins and journals published by the Wiener Library to record and disseminate the research of the Institute are also included. 75% of the content is written in German.

Holocaust (The) and Records of Concentration Camp Trials: Prosecution of Nazi War Crimes

This collection provides unique documents on the investigation and prosecution of war crimes committed by Nazi concentration camp commandants and camp personnel. Documents include: correspondence; trial records and transcripts; investigatory material, such as interrogation reports and trial exhibits; clemency petitions and reviews; photographs of atrocities; newspaper clippings; and pamphlets. Many concentration (and later extermination) camps and sub-camps are represented in this collection, including Mauthausen, Dachau, Belsen-Bergen, Buchenwald, Treblinka, Sobibor, sub-camp Gros-Raming, sub-camp Gusen I, sub-camp Ebensee, and others.

This collection provides unique documents on the investigation and prosecution of war crimes committed by Nazi concentration camp commandants and camp personnel. Documents include: correspondence; trial records and transcripts; investigatory material, such as interrogation reports and trial exhibits; clemency petitions and reviews; photographs of atrocities; newspaper clippings; and pamphlets. Many concentration (and later extermination) camps and sub-camps are represented in this collection, including Mauthausen, Dachau, Belsen-Bergen, Buchenwald, Treblinka, Sobibor, sub-camp Gros-Raming, sub-camp Gusen I, sub-camp Ebensee, and others.

Jewish Question (The): Records from the Berlin Document Center

This collection comprises documents from a wide variety of sources, including the Gestapo, local police and government offices, Reich ministries, businesses, etc., pertaining to Jewish communities. These records are organized into various sub-collections, i.e., Archiv Schumacher, Streicher, Hans Frank, Hauptarchiv der NSDAP, Geschaedigte Juden, etc., and Ordner, or folders, and include newspaper clippings, letters, manuscripts, pamphlets, reports and other documents originating with the Sturmabteilung (SA), Schutzstaffel (SS), Gestapo, Reich Ministry of Justice, and Reichskulturkammer (RKK, Reich Chamber of Culture) from 1920- 1945.

This collection comprises documents from a wide variety of sources, including the Gestapo, local police and government offices, Reich ministries, businesses, etc., pertaining to Jewish communities. These records are organized into various sub-collections, i.e., Archiv Schumacher, Streicher, Hans Frank, Hauptarchiv der NSDAP, Geschaedigte Juden, etc., and Ordner, or folders, and include newspaper clippings, letters, manuscripts, pamphlets, reports and other documents originating with the Sturmabteilung (SA), Schutzstaffel (SS), Gestapo, Reich Ministry of Justice, and Reichskulturkammer (RKK, Reich Chamber of Culture) from 1920- 1945.

U.S. Relations with the Vatican and the Holocaust, 1940-1950

Much has been published chronicling the role of Pope Pius XII regarding refugees, the Holocaust and relations with America during the war years and the immediate post-war period. This publication provides a wealth of unique correspondence, reports and analyses, memos of conversations, and personal interviews exploring such themes U.S.-Vatican relations, Vatican's role in World War II, Jewish refugees, Italian anti-Jewish laws during the papacy of Pius XII, and the pope's personal knowledge of the treatment of European Jews.

Much has been published chronicling the role of Pope Pius XII regarding refugees, the Holocaust and relations with America during the war years and the immediate post-war period. This publication provides a wealth of unique correspondence, reports and analyses, memos of conversations, and personal interviews exploring such themes U.S.-Vatican relations, Vatican's role in World War II, Jewish refugees, Italian anti-Jewish laws during the papacy of Pius XII, and the pope's personal knowledge of the treatment of European Jews.

Aden: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1880-1906

Aden's strategic location long made it a strategic asset. The British captured it in 1839, and Aden served as a key port on the route from the Mediterranean to India via the Suez Canal. The documents in this collection are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Aden's strategic location long made it a strategic asset. The British captured it in 1839, and Aden served as a key port on the route from the Mediterranean to India via the Suez Canal. The documents in this collection are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Afghanistan and the US, 1945-1963: Records of US State Department Classified Files

Afghanistan's history, internal political development, foreign relations, and very existence as an independent state have largely been determined by its geographic location at the crossroads of Central, West, and South Asia. Over the centuries, waves of migrating peoples passed through the region-described as a "roundabout of the ancient world," by historian Arnold Toynbee-leaving behind a mosaic of ethnic and linguistic groups. This collection provides an opportunity to peer into the mountains, valleys, villages, and cities of Afghanistan.

Afghanistan's history, internal political development, foreign relations, and very existence as an independent state have largely been determined by its geographic location at the crossroads of Central, West, and South Asia. Over the centuries, waves of migrating peoples passed through the region-described as a "roundabout of the ancient world," by historian Arnold Toynbee-leaving behind a mosaic of ethnic and linguistic groups. This collection provides an opportunity to peer into the mountains, valleys, villages, and cities of Afghanistan.

Afghanistan in 1919: The Third Anglo-Afghan War

This collection presents the complete files of the Political Warfare Executive (PWE) kept at the U.K. National Archives as FO 898 from its instigation to closure in 1946, along with the secret minutes of the special 1944 War Cabinet Committee "Breaking the German Will to Resist."

This collection presents the complete files of the Political Warfare Executive (PWE) kept at the U.K. National Archives as FO 898 from its instigation to closure in 1946, along with the secret minutes of the special 1944 War Cabinet Committee "Breaking the German Will to Resist."

British Campaign in Mesopotamia, 1914-1918

The Mesopotamian Campaign deserves to be far better known than it is-both in terms of its impact on the war and the subsequent course of the history of the Middle East. This new collection provides the opportunity to review the telegrams, correspondence, minutes, memoranda and confidential prints gathered together in the India Office Military Department on Mesopotamia. In 1914 the British/Indian Army expedition to Mesopotamia set out with the modest ambition of protecting the oil concession in Southern Persia but, after numerous misfortunes, ended up capturing Baghdad and Northern Towns in Iraq. Initially the mission was successful in seizing Basra but the British/Indian forces found themselves drawn North, becoming besieged by Turkish forces at Kut. After various failed relief attempts the British surrendered and the prisoners suffered appalling indignities and hardship, culminating in a death march to Turkey. In 1917, a new Commander-in-Chief was appointed but, as usual in Iraq, military policy kept changing. Hopes that the Russians would come into the war were dashed by the Revolution. Operations were further frustrated by the hottest of summers. Fighting against Turkish forces continued right up to the Armistice. The conduct of the Campaign was subject to a Commission of Inquiry which was highly critical of numerous individuals and the administrative arrangements.

The Mesopotamian Campaign deserves to be far better known than it is-both in terms of its impact on the war and the subsequent course of the history of the Middle East. This new collection provides the opportunity to review the telegrams, correspondence, minutes, memoranda and confidential prints gathered together in the India Office Military Department on Mesopotamia. In 1914 the British/Indian Army expedition to Mesopotamia set out with the modest ambition of protecting the oil concession in Southern Persia but, after numerous misfortunes, ended up capturing Baghdad and Northern Towns in Iraq. Initially the mission was successful in seizing Basra but the British/Indian forces found themselves drawn North, becoming besieged by Turkish forces at Kut. After various failed relief attempts the British surrendered and the prisoners suffered appalling indignities and hardship, culminating in a death march to Turkey. In 1917, a new Commander-in-Chief was appointed but, as usual in Iraq, military policy kept changing. Hopes that the Russians would come into the war were dashed by the Revolution. Operations were further frustrated by the hottest of summers. Fighting against Turkish forces continued right up to the Armistice. The conduct of the Campaign was subject to a Commission of Inquiry which was highly critical of numerous individuals and the administrative arrangements.

Democracy in Turkey, 1950-1959: Records of the U.S. State Department Classified Files

This collection of State Department documents provides access to unique primary source materials on the political, economic and social development of Turkey during a period of democratization in the 1950s.

This collection of State Department documents provides access to unique primary source materials on the political, economic and social development of Turkey during a period of democratization in the 1950s.

Egypt: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1853-1959

This archive covers Egypt from the years before the opening of the Suez Canal through the era of British domination, Arab nationalism, and independence. The documents here are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

This archive covers Egypt from the years before the opening of the Suez Canal through the era of British domination, Arab nationalism, and independence. The documents here are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

George H. W. Bush and Foreign Affairs: The Middle East Peace Conference in Madrid

This collection comprises materials related to the planning and organization of the October 1991 Middle East Peace Conference in Madrid. It consists of correspondence, memoranda, cables, diplomatic dispatches, reports, studies, maps, and printed material which document all aspects of staging the conference as well as the conference itself. The materials detail the role of the United States in convening the peace conference and the interactions and positions of the various parties involved. Subjects include the Persian Gulf War; Operation Desert Shield; Oil; public opinion; Intifada; U.N. Security Council Resolutions; Land for Peace concept; Palestinians; Palestine Liberation Organization; among other topics.

This collection comprises materials related to the planning and organization of the October 1991 Middle East Peace Conference in Madrid. It consists of correspondence, memoranda, cables, diplomatic dispatches, reports, studies, maps, and printed material which document all aspects of staging the conference as well as the conference itself. The materials detail the role of the United States in convening the peace conference and the interactions and positions of the various parties involved. Subjects include the Persian Gulf War; Operation Desert Shield; Oil; public opinion; Intifada; U.N. Security Council Resolutions; Land for Peace concept; Palestinians; Palestine Liberation Organization; among other topics.

Iran (Persia): Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1883-1959

Persia’s geopolitical importance at the end of the 19th century made it a central focus in the "great game" of diplomatic rivalry between the major imperial powers. This archive traces the emergence of modern Iran through the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1911 and the establishment and reign of the Pahlavi Dynasty into the 1950s. The documents here are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Persia’s geopolitical importance at the end of the 19th century made it a central focus in the "great game" of diplomatic rivalry between the major imperial powers. This archive traces the emergence of modern Iran through the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1911 and the establishment and reign of the Pahlavi Dynasty into the 1950s. The documents here are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Iraq: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1888-1944

Iraq, from Ottoman principality to independent state, is treated here from the perspective of the United States. The documents are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Iraq, from Ottoman principality to independent state, is treated here from the perspective of the United States. The documents are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Trans-Jordan: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1836-1944

The documents in this collection on Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, and Trans-Jordan are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

The documents in this collection on Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, and Trans-Jordan are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Libya: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1796-1885

This archive covers the U.S. consults in Tripoli for the majority of the 19th century. It is sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

This archive covers the U.S. consults in Tripoli for the majority of the 19th century. It is sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Middle East Online: Arab-Israeli Relations, 1917-1970, The

Arab-Israeli Relations 1917-1970-offers the widest range of original source material from the British Foreign Office, Colonial Office, War Office and Cabinet Papers from the 1917 Balfour Declaration through to the Black September war of 1970-1. Here major policy statements are set out in their fullest context, the minor documents and marginalia revealing the workings of colonial administration and, following the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, British diplomacy towards Israel and the Arab states. Additional value has been by the expansion from the original 562 National Archives records to over 17,000, thus substantially improving access to over 138,000 pages documenting the politics, administration, wars and diplomacy of the Palestine Mandate, the Independence of Israel and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Some of the topics covered include the British capture of Jerusalem, the milestones in the Palestine-Zionist tension and their impact on British policy leading to the Partition of 1948, Jewish terror groups, the background to the establishment of the State of Israel as a Jewish national home, the Border wars of the 1950s, formation of the United Arab Republic, the Cold War in the Middle East and Black September.

Arab-Israeli Relations 1917-1970-offers the widest range of original source material from the British Foreign Office, Colonial Office, War Office and Cabinet Papers from the 1917 Balfour Declaration through to the Black September war of 1970-1. Here major policy statements are set out in their fullest context, the minor documents and marginalia revealing the workings of colonial administration and, following the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, British diplomacy towards Israel and the Arab states. Additional value has been by the expansion from the original 562 National Archives records to over 17,000, thus substantially improving access to over 138,000 pages documenting the politics, administration, wars and diplomacy of the Palestine Mandate, the Independence of Israel and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Some of the topics covered include the British capture of Jerusalem, the milestones in the Palestine-Zionist tension and their impact on British policy leading to the Partition of 1948, Jewish terror groups, the background to the establishment of the State of Israel as a Jewish national home, the Border wars of the 1950s, formation of the United Arab Republic, the Cold War in the Middle East and Black September.

Middle East, Series II: Iraq, 1914-1974

Iraq 1914-1974 offers the widest range of original source material from the Foreign Office, Colonial Office, War Office and Cabinet Papers from the Anglo-Indian landing in Basra in 1914 through the British Mandate in Iraq of 1920-32 to the rise of Saddam Hussein in 1974. Here major policy statements are set out in their fullest context, the minor documents and marginalia revealing the workings of the mandate administration, diplomacy, treaties, oil and arms dealing. Topics covered include: The Siege of Kut-al-Amara, The War in Mesapotamia and the capture of Baghdad in 1917, Introduction of the British Mandate, and the installation of King Faisal in 1921, The British administration in Baghdad, Gertrude Bell, advisor to the British administration, in both reports and memos, The Arab Uprising of 1920, Independence, and Iraq's membership of the League of Nations in 1932, Coups d'etat in the 1930s and 1940s, The Baghdad Pact of 1955 and the military coup of 1958 leading to the establishment of a republic, The Cold War and Soviet intervention in Iraq, Kurdish unrest and the war in Kurdistan, Oil concessions and oil exploration, The Rise of Ba'athism and Saddam Hussein, The USSR-Iraq Treaty of Friendship in 1972, Iran-Iraq relations.

Iraq 1914-1974 offers the widest range of original source material from the Foreign Office, Colonial Office, War Office and Cabinet Papers from the Anglo-Indian landing in Basra in 1914 through the British Mandate in Iraq of 1920-32 to the rise of Saddam Hussein in 1974. Here major policy statements are set out in their fullest context, the minor documents and marginalia revealing the workings of the mandate administration, diplomacy, treaties, oil and arms dealing. Topics covered include: The Siege of Kut-al-Amara, The War in Mesapotamia and the capture of Baghdad in 1917, Introduction of the British Mandate, and the installation of King Faisal in 1921, The British administration in Baghdad, Gertrude Bell, advisor to the British administration, in both reports and memos, The Arab Uprising of 1920, Independence, and Iraq's membership of the League of Nations in 1932, Coups d'etat in the 1930s and 1940s, The Baghdad Pact of 1955 and the military coup of 1958 leading to the establishment of a republic, The Cold War and Soviet intervention in Iraq, Kurdish unrest and the war in Kurdistan, Oil concessions and oil exploration, The Rise of Ba'athism and Saddam Hussein, The USSR-Iraq Treaty of Friendship in 1972, Iran-Iraq relations.

Morocco: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1797-1929

This archive reveals more than a century of U.S.-Morocco relations and includes, among various documents, correspondences from U.S. ministers in Tangier and Tetuan. It is sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

This archive reveals more than a century of U.S.-Morocco relations and includes, among various documents, correspondences from U.S. ministers in Tangier and Tetuan. It is sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Pakistan from Crown Rule to Republic: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1945-1949

A companion archive to India from Crown Rule to Republic, 1945-1949, this collection traces a critical moment that witnessed the end of British India and the creation of modern Pakistan. The collection is sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

A companion archive to India from Crown Rule to Republic, 1945-1949, this collection traces a critical moment that witnessed the end of British India and the creation of modern Pakistan. The collection is sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Palestine and Israel: Records of the US Department of State, 1945-1959

The documents in this collection on Palestine and Israel are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. This archive traces the vitally important period that saw the end of the British mandate in Palestine. Documents address the role of the Security Council and General Assembly of the United Nations and that of the United States in the creation of the state of Israel. Included here are the Palestine Reference files of Dean Rusk and Robert McClintock, as well as documents from the Mission of the United States in Tel-Aviv. The years 1955-1959 contain instructions and correspondences of the U.S. Department of State.

The documents in this collection on Palestine and Israel are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. This archive traces the vitally important period that saw the end of the British mandate in Palestine. Documents address the role of the Security Council and General Assembly of the United Nations and that of the United States in the creation of the state of Israel. Included here are the Palestine Reference files of Dean Rusk and Robert McClintock, as well as documents from the Mission of the United States in Tel-Aviv. The years 1955-1959 contain instructions and correspondences of the U.S. Department of State.

Records of the Persian Gulf War

This collection contains materials related to the diplomatic and military response by the United States (as part of a multi-national force) to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990.

This collection contains materials related to the diplomatic and military response by the United States (as part of a multi-national force) to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990.

Revolution of the King and the People in Morocco, 1950-1959: Records of the U.S. State Department Classified Files

Morocco's strategic location has shaped its history. After gaining independence in 1956, Morocco made great strides toward economic and political liberalization. The sultan Muhammad V, ruling his newly independent nation, proclaimed his intention of turning it into a constitutional monarchy. His first act was to transform himself into a monarch and assume the title of king. The Moroccan government undertook a number of economic, social, and political reforms, including the drafting of a constitution.

Morocco's strategic location has shaped its history. After gaining independence in 1956, Morocco made great strides toward economic and political liberalization. The sultan Muhammad V, ruling his newly independent nation, proclaimed his intention of turning it into a constitutional monarchy. His first act was to transform himself into a monarch and assume the title of king. The Moroccan government undertook a number of economic, social, and political reforms, including the drafting of a constitution.

Saudi Arabia: Records of the US Department of State, 1930-1959

The documents in this collection on Saudi Arabia are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. This archive divides into two distinct parts. The first part, 1930-1944, documents a critical period in the formation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; the second part, 1955-1959, illustrates the day-to-day workings of the oil-rich state.

The documents in this collection on Saudi Arabia are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. This archive divides into two distinct parts. The first part, 1930-1944, documents a critical period in the formation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; the second part, 1955-1959, illustrates the day-to-day workings of the oil-rich state.

Cyprus Crisis (The), 1967: Standoff between Greece and Turkey

The State Department's Executive Secretariat was responsible for creating a documentary record on various International crises during the 1960s. The documents in The Cyprus Crisis, 1967 were collected and collated from a variety of State Department sources and represent an administrative history of the crisis from the perspective of the U.S. government and its foreign policy.

The State Department's Executive Secretariat was responsible for creating a documentary record on various International crises during the 1960s. The documents in The Cyprus Crisis, 1967 were collected and collated from a variety of State Department sources and represent an administrative history of the crisis from the perspective of the U.S. government and its foreign policy.

British Mandate in Palestine (The), Arab-Jewish Relations & the U.S.

This collection consists of correspondence and telegrams received and sent by the American consular post in Jerusalem. The topics covered by these records include the protection of interests of American citizens, foreign trade, shipping, and immigration. But there is more to these records than traditional consular activities - the Jerusalem post provides a unique look into the British Mandate in Palestine. Consular officials reported on the administration of the Mandate, Jewish immigration, terrorism, and Arab rebellion. There are unique materials on the relationship of Palestinians to other Arab countries, British policies, the Zionist movement in Palestine and abroad, Communist influence in Palestine, reports on Islamic conferences, racial and religious disturbances and riots, the "holy places question," partition of Palestine and the Arab Entente, Jewish-Arab relations and impact on Palestine, and Jewish and Arab national aspirations.

This collection consists of correspondence and telegrams received and sent by the American consular post in Jerusalem. The topics covered by these records include the protection of interests of American citizens, foreign trade, shipping, and immigration. But there is more to these records than traditional consular activities - the Jerusalem post provides a unique look into the British Mandate in Palestine. Consular officials reported on the administration of the Mandate, Jewish immigration, terrorism, and Arab rebellion. There are unique materials on the relationship of Palestinians to other Arab countries, British policies, the Zionist movement in Palestine and abroad, Communist influence in Palestine, reports on Islamic conferences, racial and religious disturbances and riots, the "holy places question," partition of Palestine and the Arab Entente, Jewish-Arab relations and impact on Palestine, and Jewish and Arab national aspirations.

French Mandate (The) in Lebanon, Christian-Muslim Relations, and the U.S. Consulate at Beirut, 1920-1941                             

This collection consists of correspondence and telegrams received and sent by the American consular post in Beirut. The topics covered by these records include the protection of interests of American citizens, foreign trade, shipping, and immigration. But there is more to these records than traditional consular activities - the Beirut post provides a unique look into the French Mandate in Syria-Lebanon. Consular officials reported on the administration of the Mandate, its problems, French repression and Arab rebellion. There are unique materials on the Druse Rebellion of 1925 ,religious conflicts between Christian, Maronite, and Muslim communities, repression by French military forces, French efforts to settle Bedouin tribes in Syria, nationalist organizations and rebellion, anti-Zionism activities, riots and civil disturbances in the cities, villages and rural areas, failure of the Franco-Lebanese Treaty of 1936, creation of a new mandate administration in Syria in 1939, the war clouds in Europe, and Palestinian views on Syrian independence.

This collection consists of correspondence and telegrams received and sent by the American consular post in Beirut. The topics covered by these records include the protection of interests of American citizens, foreign trade, shipping, and immigration. But there is more to these records than traditional consular activities - the Beirut post provides a unique look into the French Mandate in Syria-Lebanon. Consular officials reported on the administration of the Mandate, its problems, French repression and Arab rebellion. There are unique materials on the Druse Rebellion of 1925 ,religious conflicts between Christian, Maronite, and Muslim communities, repression by French military forces, French efforts to settle Bedouin tribes in Syria, nationalist organizations and rebellion, anti-Zionism activities, riots and civil disturbances in the cities, villages and rural areas, failure of the Franco-Lebanese Treaty of 1936, creation of a new mandate administration in Syria in 1939, the war clouds in Europe, and Palestinian views on Syrian independence.

Persian Gulf and Yemen: American Ascendancy and the Cold War, 1950-1959

These documents highlight the structure and activities of the Persian Gulf States' and Yemen's political system, government, judiciary, laws, military, customs, economy, finance, agriculture, natural resources, industry, communications, and media. Because of the broad scope of these records, they both supplement and complement the coverage offered by the State Department's Foreign Relations of the United States series.

These documents highlight the structure and activities of the Persian Gulf States' and Yemen's political system, government, judiciary, laws, military, customs, economy, finance, agriculture, natural resources, industry, communications, and media. Because of the broad scope of these records, they both supplement and complement the coverage offered by the State Department's Foreign Relations of the United States series.

U.S. and Iraqi Relations: U.S. Technical Aid, 1950-1958

The program of technical cooperation in Iraq, prior to the Revolution of 1958, was frequently cited as an example of the ideal Point Four program. The overthrow of the established government led naturally to questions concerning the "failure" of American technical assistance in that country.

The program of technical cooperation in Iraq, prior to the Revolution of 1958, was frequently cited as an example of the ideal Point Four program. The overthrow of the established government led naturally to questions concerning the "failure" of American technical assistance in that country.

U.S. Middle East Peace Policy and America's Role in the Middle East Peace Process, 1991-1992

This collection contains Bush Presidential Records from a variety of White House offices. These files consist of letters of correspondence, memoranda, coversheets, notes, distribution lists, newspaper articles, informational papers, published articles, and reports from the public, the Congress, Bush administration officials, and other various federal agencies primarily regarding American Middle East peace policy and the United States' role in the many facets of the Middle East peace process.

This collection contains Bush Presidential Records from a variety of White House offices. These files consist of letters of correspondence, memoranda, coversheets, notes, distribution lists, newspaper articles, informational papers, published articles, and reports from the public, the Congress, Bush administration officials, and other various federal agencies primarily regarding American Middle East peace policy and the United States' role in the many facets of the Middle East peace process.

U.S. Operations Mission to Saudi Arabia, 1950–1955: Correspondence and Subject Files of the Office of the Director

This collection is a record of the U.S. Operations Mission's experiences in Saudi Arabia. In it are outlined the programs that were initiated, the problems encountered, and the results of the five year effort in the Point Four program. In Saudi Arabia, there were two chief aims that guided the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) effort and the Point Four Program. The first was to promote the acceptance and support of ICA by cooperating and integrating the efforts of local and regional governments and bureaucrats. The second was to initiate projects that would reach as many people as possible, especially the common people who desperately needed opportunities and help. Three kinds of aid were provided: United States technicians advised or worked with the Saudi Government; supplies and equipment were provided for demonstration purposes; and Saudi personnel were sent to the U.S. or third countries for observation or training programs. Much was achieved in public health, education, public administration, community development, and transportation. The aim of the Point Four program was to promote the combined growth of economic and social improvement and political freedom.

This collection is a record of the U.S. Operations Mission's experiences in Saudi Arabia. In it are outlined the programs that were initiated, the problems encountered, and the results of the five year effort in the Point Four program. In Saudi Arabia, there were two chief aims that guided the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) effort and the Point Four Program. The first was to promote the acceptance and support of ICA by cooperating and integrating the efforts of local and regional governments and bureaucrats. The second was to initiate projects that would reach as many people as possible, especially the common people who desperately needed opportunities and help. Three kinds of aid were provided: United States technicians advised or worked with the Saudi Government; supplies and equipment were provided for demonstration purposes; and Saudi personnel were sent to the U.S. or third countries for observation or training programs. Much was achieved in public health, education, public administration, community development, and transportation. The aim of the Point Four program was to promote the combined growth of economic and social improvement and political freedom.

European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: French Colonialism in Africa: From Algeria to Madagascar, 1910-1930

This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the French colonial government and the activities of the native peoples. Highlights include the beginning of an anti-colonial movement and problems along the Moroccan-Algerian border.

This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the French colonial government and the activities of the native peoples. Highlights include the beginning of an anti-colonial movement and problems along the Moroccan-Algerian border.

European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: German Colonies and League of Nations Mandates in Africa 1910-1929

German colonization in Africa ended with the end of the First World War. British and French Army forces seized German colonies in Africa and British naval forces occupied the German port facilities. The Treaty of Versailles legitimized and officially mandated the former German colonies to British and French colonial authorities. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the German colonial governments and later the mandate authorities, and the activities of the native peoples.

German colonization in Africa ended with the end of the First World War. British and French Army forces seized German colonies in Africa and British naval forces occupied the German port facilities. The Treaty of Versailles legitimized and officially mandated the former German colonies to British and French colonial authorities. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the German colonial governments and later the mandate authorities, and the activities of the native peoples.

European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: Italian Colonies in North Africa and Aggression in East Africa, 1930-1939

Italian colonization and policies mimicked those of other European countries during the modern period. Italian colonial policy during the period 1930-1939 was shaped more by Fascism. Fascist tenets related to governance and social policy was used in the administration and treatment of the African population in Libya, Eritrea, Somalia, and Italian East Africa. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the Italian colonial governments and later the mandate authorities, and the activities of the native peoples.

Italian colonization and policies mimicked those of other European countries during the modern period. Italian colonial policy during the period 1930-1939 was shaped more by Fascism. Fascist tenets related to governance and social policy was used in the administration and treatment of the African population in Libya, Eritrea, Somalia, and Italian East Africa. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the Italian colonial governments and later the mandate authorities, and the activities of the native peoples.

European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: Political and Economic Consolidation of Portuguese Colonies in Africa, 1910-1929

This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the Portuguese colonial government and the activities of the native peoples. Highlights include the beginning of an anti-colonial movement and the industrialization and economic exploitation of Portugal's African colonies.

This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the Portuguese colonial government and the activities of the native peoples. Highlights include the beginning of an anti-colonial movement and the industrialization and economic exploitation of Portugal's African colonies.

Liberia and the U.S.: Nation-Building in Africa, 1918-1935

This archive serves as a companion to Liberia and the U.S.: Nation-Building in Africa, 1864-1918. It consists of correspondence and telegrams received and sent by American diplomats, as well as records of American citizens and companies with relations to Liberia. It carries the story from the end of First World War into the interwar period.

This archive serves as a companion to Liberia and the U.S.: Nation-Building in Africa, 1864-1918. It consists of correspondence and telegrams received and sent by American diplomats, as well as records of American citizens and companies with relations to Liberia. It carries the story from the end of First World War into the interwar period.

Chinese Maritime Customs Service Publications

The Maritime Customs Service of China (1854–1949) compiled and produced a huge number of publications from 1860 to 1949. These publications fall under six series: Statistical Series, Special Series, Miscellaneous Series, Service Series, Office Series, and Inspectorate Series. Out of these, the Statistical Series boasted the largest output. This collection incorporates the core of the Statistical Series, including Returns of the Import and Export Trade, 1859-1866; Returns of Trade at the Ports in China Open by Treaty, 1867-1881; Returns of Trade at the Treaty Ports and Trade Report, 1882-1919; Chinese Version of Return of Trade and Reports of Trade (missing 1885); Foreign Trade of China, 1920-1931; The Trade of China, 1932-1948 (bilingual); Decennial Reports on the Trade, Industries, etc, of the Ports Open to Foreign Commerce, and on the Condition and Development of the Treaty Port Provinces.

The Maritime Customs Service of China (1854–1949) compiled and produced a huge number of publications from 1860 to 1949. These publications fall under six series: Statistical Series, Special Series, Miscellaneous Series, Service Series, Office Series, and Inspectorate Series. Out of these, the Statistical Series boasted the largest output. This collection incorporates the core of the Statistical Series, including Returns of the Import and Export Trade, 1859-1866; Returns of Trade at the Ports in China Open by Treaty, 1867-1881; Returns of Trade at the Treaty Ports and Trade Report, 1882-1919; Chinese Version of Return of Trade and Reports of Trade (missing 1885); Foreign Trade of China, 1920-1931; The Trade of China, 1932-1948 (bilingual); Decennial Reports on the Trade, Industries, etc, of the Ports Open to Foreign Commerce, and on the Condition and Development of the Treaty Port Provinces.

Country Intelligence Reports/State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research Reports: Japan

This series consists of reports, studies, and surveys on various topics of interest to the Department of State. The reports vary from short memorandums to detailed, documented studies. The topics range from individual commodities or countries to the economic and political characteristics of whole regions. This collection consists of research and intelligence reports prepared during 1941-1947 on Japan.

This series consists of reports, studies, and surveys on various topics of interest to the Department of State. The reports vary from short memorandums to detailed, documented studies. The topics range from individual commodities or countries to the economic and political characteristics of whole regions. This collection consists of research and intelligence reports prepared during 1941-1947 on Japan.

Country Intelligence Reports/State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research Reports: Korea

This series consists of reports, studies, and surveys on various topics of interest to the Department of State. The reports vary from short memorandums to detailed, documented studies. The topics range from individual commodities or countries to the economic and political characteristics of whole regions. This collection consists of research and intelligence reports prepared during 1941-1947 on Korea.

This series consists of reports, studies, and surveys on various topics of interest to the Department of State. The reports vary from short memorandums to detailed, documented studies. The topics range from individual commodities or countries to the economic and political characteristics of whole regions. This collection consists of research and intelligence reports prepared during 1941-1947 on Korea.

European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: German Colonies in Asia and the Pacific: From Colonialism to Japanese Mandates, 1910-1929

German Colonial aspirations in Asia and the Pacific ended with the start of the First World War. Japanese Army forces seized German leased territories in China and the Japanese naval forces occupied the German Pacific colonies. The Treaty of Versailles legitimized Japan's aggression and the territories were officially mandated to the Japanese government. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the German colonial governments and later the Japanese mandate authorities, and the activities of the native peoples.

German Colonial aspirations in Asia and the Pacific ended with the start of the First World War. Japanese Army forces seized German leased territories in China and the Japanese naval forces occupied the German Pacific colonies. The Treaty of Versailles legitimized Japan's aggression and the territories were officially mandated to the Japanese government. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the German colonial governments and later the Japanese mandate authorities, and the activities of the native peoples.

FBI File on Owen Lattimore

An American sinologist and college professor, Owen Lattimore (1900–1989) traveled extensively and did research throughout China, Manchuria, Mongolia, and Chinese Turkistan. From 1938-1950, he served as director of the Page School of International Relations at Johns Hopkins. In 1950, Senator Joseph McCarthy accused him of being a Soviet espionage agent. A senate committee exonerated him later that year. In 1952, he was indicted on seven counts of perjury on the charge that he lied when he told a Senate internal security subcommittee earlier in 1952 that he had not promoted Communism and Communist interests. In 1955, the Justice Department dropped all charges against him. Most of the material in this file relates to Lattimore's leftist sympathies and catalogs how he became a victim of McCarthyism.

An American sinologist and college professor, Owen Lattimore (1900–1989) traveled extensively and did research throughout China, Manchuria, Mongolia, and Chinese Turkistan. From 1938-1950, he served as director of the Page School of International Relations at Johns Hopkins. In 1950, Senator Joseph McCarthy accused him of being a Soviet espionage agent. A senate committee exonerated him later that year. In 1952, he was indicted on seven counts of perjury on the charge that he lied when he told a Senate internal security subcommittee earlier in 1952 that he had not promoted Communism and Communist interests. In 1955, the Justice Department dropped all charges against him. Most of the material in this file relates to Lattimore's leftist sympathies and catalogs how he became a victim of McCarthyism.

Japan and Korea: Summation of Nonmilitary Activities, 1945-1948

The rebuilding of postwar Japan and southern Korea by Allied occupation forces is described here in a series of thirty-six monthly reports. The reports offer detailed information on industrial reparations; conversion of production from military to consumer goods; land reform; restructuring of educational, public health, and welfare programs; and the establishment of a liberal, democratic political system. The reports on SCAP (Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers) activities in Korea cover the administration of civil affairs and reconstructive efforts under the military occupation government and later the South Korean Interim Government. This digital archive is based on eight microfilm rolls.

The rebuilding of postwar Japan and southern Korea by Allied occupation forces is described here in a series of thirty-six monthly reports. The reports offer detailed information on industrial reparations; conversion of production from military to consumer goods; land reform; restructuring of educational, public health, and welfare programs; and the establishment of a liberal, democratic political system. The reports on SCAP (Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers) activities in Korea cover the administration of civil affairs and reconstructive efforts under the military occupation government and later the South Korean Interim Government. This digital archive is based on eight microfilm rolls.

Japan at War and Peace, 1930-1949: Records of the U.S. State Department Classified Files

During the 1920s and early 1930s, Japan progressed toward a democratic system of government. However, parliamentary government was not rooted deeply enough to withstand the economic and political pressures of the 1930s, during which expansionism and militarization became increasingly influential in government and society.

During the 1920s and early 1930s, Japan progressed toward a democratic system of government. However, parliamentary government was not rooted deeply enough to withstand the economic and political pressures of the 1930s, during which expansionism and militarization became increasingly influential in government and society.

Japan: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Commercial Relations, 1910-1949

This archive reproduces microfilm of the U.S. Department of State Decimal Files 611.94 and 6194.11. The documents trace the commercial relations between the United States and Japan over the course of almost half a century in the years 1910-1929, 1930-1939, 1940-1944, and 1945-1949. The files are predominantly instructions to -- and dispatches from -- diplomatic and consular officials. Notes between the Department of State and foreign diplomats in the United States, memoranda prepared by State Department officials, and correspondence with officials of other government departments and with private businesses and persons are also featured. Subjects include: advertising, aircraft, commerce, customs administration, drug regulations, duties, embargo, free ports, landing certificates, law, markets, merchandise, prison made goods, pure food and drug regulations, smuggling, tariff treaties, export and import trade, undervaluation of imported merchandise, among many other topics.

This archive reproduces microfilm of the U.S. Department of State Decimal Files 611.94 and 6194.11. The documents trace the commercial relations between the United States and Japan over the course of almost half a century in the years 1910-1929, 1930-1939, 1940-1944, and 1945-1949. The files are predominantly instructions to -- and dispatches from -- diplomatic and consular officials. Notes between the Department of State and foreign diplomats in the United States, memoranda prepared by State Department officials, and correspondence with officials of other government departments and with private businesses and persons are also featured. Subjects include: advertising, aircraft, commerce, customs administration, drug regulations, duties, embargo, free ports, landing certificates, law, markets, merchandise, prison made goods, pure food and drug regulations, smuggling, tariff treaties, export and import trade, undervaluation of imported merchandise, among many other topics.

Japan: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Commerical Relations, 1950-1963

This archive reproduces Decimal File 494 and is based on the microfilm title Records Relating to U.S. Commercial Relations with Japan, for the years 1950-1954, 1955-1959, and 1960-1963. The documents in this collection are predominantly instructions to -- and dispatches from -- diplomatic and consular officials are often accompanied by enclosures. Notes between the Department of State and foreign diplomats in the United States, memoranda prepared by State Department officials, and correspondence with officials of other government departments and with private businesses and persons are also included.

This archive reproduces Decimal File 494 and is based on the microfilm title Records Relating to U.S. Commercial Relations with Japan, for the years 1950-1954, 1955-1959, and 1960-1963. The documents in this collection are predominantly instructions to -- and dispatches from -- diplomatic and consular officials are often accompanied by enclosures. Notes between the Department of State and foreign diplomats in the United States, memoranda prepared by State Department officials, and correspondence with officials of other government departments and with private businesses and persons are also included.

Japan: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, 1950-1954

The documents in this collection are predominantly instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal conditions in Japan. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments of the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. Contained here are U.S. Department of State Decimal Files 794, 894, and 994, entitled Records Relating to the Internal Affairs of Japan, for the years 1950-1954.

The documents in this collection are predominantly instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal conditions in Japan. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments of the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. Contained here are U.S. Department of State Decimal Files 794, 894, and 994, entitled Records Relating to the Internal Affairs of Japan, for the years 1950-1954.

Japan: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, 1955-1959

The documents in this collection are predominantly instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal conditions in Japan. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments of the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. Contained here are U.S. Department of State Decimal Files 794, 894, and 994, entitled Records Relating to the Internal Affairs of Japan, for the years 1955-1959.

The documents in this collection are predominantly instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal conditions in Japan. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments of the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. Contained here are U.S. Department of State Decimal Files 794, 894, and 994, entitled Records Relating to the Internal Affairs of Japan, for the years 1955-1959.

Japan: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Political Relations, 1930-1939

The year 1931 stands as a major turning point in Japan’s modern history. In September 1931 Japanese armed forces overran Manchuria, committing their government to a course of direct action in Asia and, ultimately, to the rejection of the structure of international relations which had emerged in the 1920s. By 1940 Japan was caught up in a cycle of extreme nationalism, isolation, and ultimately war with the United States. This archive charts a key decade in U.S.-Japanese relations. It is is one of three digital collections based on the microfilm title Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to United States Political Relations with Japan, 1930-1954. The source material contains Decimal File 711.94.

The year 1931 stands as a major turning point in Japan’s modern history. In September 1931 Japanese armed forces overran Manchuria, committing their government to a course of direct action in Asia and, ultimately, to the rejection of the structure of international relations which had emerged in the 1920s. By 1940 Japan was caught up in a cycle of extreme nationalism, isolation, and ultimately war with the United States. This archive charts a key decade in U.S.-Japanese relations. It is is one of three digital collections based on the microfilm title Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to United States Political Relations with Japan, 1930-1954. The source material contains Decimal File 711.94.

Japan: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Political Relations, 1940-1944

This archive traces the outbreak of the U.S. war with Japan in December 1941 through 1944. It is one of three digital collections based on the microfilm title Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to United States Political Relations with Japan, 1930-1954. The source material contains Decimal File 711.94.

This archive traces the outbreak of the U.S. war with Japan in December 1941 through 1944. It is one of three digital collections based on the microfilm title Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to United States Political Relations with Japan, 1930-1954. The source material contains Decimal File 711.94.

Japan: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Political Relations, 1945-1949

Japan in the summer of 1945 was a nation totally exhausted by war. The Allied Occupation, dedicated to political and social reform, thoroughly transformed the country in a remarkably short period of time. This is one of three digital collections based on the microfilm title Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to United States Political Relations with Japan, 1930-1954. The source material contains Decimal File 711.94.

Japan in the summer of 1945 was a nation totally exhausted by war. The Allied Occupation, dedicated to political and social reform, thoroughly transformed the country in a remarkably short period of time. This is one of three digital collections based on the microfilm title Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to United States Political Relations with Japan, 1930-1954. The source material contains Decimal File 711.94.

Japan: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1950-1959

In 1945 Japan was a devastated and occupied country. A decade later it reemerged as an independent state within an American-led order of capitalist states. This rapid transformation was the product of the unusual circumstances of the U.S. occupation and the global rivalry of the Cold War. Eager to ensure Japan’s dependability as an anti-Communist ally in Asia, staunch anti-Communist leaders found favor with the occupation, and postwar Japan was born as a coalescence of renewed commitments to democracy and an East Asia fractured by U.S.-Soviet rivalry. The primary beneficiaries of this formula became Japan’s export industries. Favorable currency exchange rates gave Japanese manufactures easy access to the large U.S. market. In these years, Japan’s economy grew at a double-digit pace. Commercial documents include, for example, Pacific Ocean Fisheries Convention between the United States, Canada, and Japan (1950); the duty of frozen tuna fish (1951); finding of “radioactive radiation in the fisherman, fish and boat affected by the explosion of the hydrogen bomb at Bikini” (March 1954); records of Philippine tourists to Japan 1953-1956. Diplomatic correspondences include those of U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and discussions of U.S.-Japanese policies in the Pacific and East Asia (June 1957).

In 1945 Japan was a devastated and occupied country. A decade later it reemerged as an independent state within an American-led order of capitalist states. This rapid transformation was the product of the unusual circumstances of the U.S. occupation and the global rivalry of the Cold War. Eager to ensure Japan’s dependability as an anti-Communist ally in Asia, staunch anti-Communist leaders found favor with the occupation, and postwar Japan was born as a coalescence of renewed commitments to democracy and an East Asia fractured by U.S.-Soviet rivalry. The primary beneficiaries of this formula became Japan’s export industries. Favorable currency exchange rates gave Japanese manufactures easy access to the large U.S. market. In these years, Japan’s economy grew at a double-digit pace. Commercial documents include, for example, Pacific Ocean Fisheries Convention between the United States, Canada, and Japan (1950); the duty of frozen tuna fish (1951); finding of “radioactive radiation in the fisherman, fish and boat affected by the explosion of the hydrogen bomb at Bikini” (March 1954); records of Philippine tourists to Japan 1953-1956. Diplomatic correspondences include those of U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and discussions of U.S.-Japanese policies in the Pacific and East Asia (June 1957).

Japan: U.S. Naval Technical Mission, 1945-1946

The U.S. Naval Technical Mission to Japan was established on 14 August 1945. The purpose of the mission was to survey Japanese scientific and technological developments of interest to the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps in the Japanese islands of Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, Hokkaido; China; and parts of Korea. The enterprise entailed the seizure of intelligence material, its examination, the interrogation of personnel, and ultimately the preparation of reports which would appraise the technological status of Japanese industry and the Japanese navy. During the period of operation a total of 655 officers and men served the organization and 185 individual reports were published.

The U.S. Naval Technical Mission to Japan was established on 14 August 1945. The purpose of the mission was to survey Japanese scientific and technological developments of interest to the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps in the Japanese islands of Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, Hokkaido; China; and parts of Korea. The enterprise entailed the seizure of intelligence material, its examination, the interrogation of personnel, and ultimately the preparation of reports which would appraise the technological status of Japanese industry and the Japanese navy. During the period of operation a total of 655 officers and men served the organization and 185 individual reports were published.

Japan-U.S. Economic Relations Group Records, 1979-1981

On May 2, 1979, President Jimmy Carter and Prime Minister Masayoshi Ohira met in Washington, D.C. and agreed to establish the Japan-U.S. Economic Relations Group—informally known as the "Wise Men." This small group of distinguished persons drawn from private life would submit recommendations to Carter and Ohira for maintaining a healthy bilateral economic relationship between the United States and Japan. Among the issues considered were the role of economic issues in the overall "political-security-cultural relationship," especially Japan’s emerging position as a world power; Japan’s future comprehensive economic security needs; and its involvement in foreign assistance programs. The Group actively solicited the views of the American public (Congress, business, labor, agriculture, public interest groups) to provide an additional forum for those who wished to be heard. The Group also drew upon research that was currently under way in the two countries and sponsored a modest program of separate independent research.

On May 2, 1979, President Jimmy Carter and Prime Minister Masayoshi Ohira met in Washington, D.C. and agreed to establish the Japan-U.S. Economic Relations Group—informally known as the "Wise Men." This small group of distinguished persons drawn from private life would submit recommendations to Carter and Ohira for maintaining a healthy bilateral economic relationship between the United States and Japan. Among the issues considered were the role of economic issues in the overall "political-security-cultural relationship," especially Japan’s emerging position as a world power; Japan’s future comprehensive economic security needs; and its involvement in foreign assistance programs. The Group actively solicited the views of the American public (Congress, business, labor, agriculture, public interest groups) to provide an additional forum for those who wished to be heard. The Group also drew upon research that was currently under way in the two countries and sponsored a modest program of separate independent research.

Korea: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1930-1963

This archive documents Korea under Japanese occupation through the postwar period. Japan annexed Korea in 1910, and in the period 1931 to 1945 it ruled Korea by a strict military regime with complete cultural assimilation. The euphoria following Japan’s defeat, and Korea’s liberation, in 1945 was short lived as Soviet and American policy makers divided Korea under a joint protectorship. The Korean War, which broke out in 1950, resulted in a strategic stalemate, and the unwillingness of the United Nations to risk a larger conflict with China and perhaps the Soviet Union, ultimately resulted in a 1953 armistice, with Korea divided along roughly prewar lines. Documents from the U.S. Department of State, Division of Far Eastern Affairs, and the U.S. Department of Commerce include: “Annual Report of the Administration of Chosen, 1927-1928: Control of Opium”; “Morphine Addicts in Chosen”; laws and regulations on narcotics; an agricultural report focusing on rice production (1939); issues of repatriation of American citizens from “the Japanese Empire and from Japanese-controlled areas of the Far East” (June 1943); a report from U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk on a visit of a Japanese delegation, in April 1962, to South Korea and to North Korea outlining “… the Department’s continuing need for intelligence on North Korea.”

This archive documents Korea under Japanese occupation through the postwar period. Japan annexed Korea in 1910, and in the period 1931 to 1945 it ruled Korea by a strict military regime with complete cultural assimilation. The euphoria following Japan’s defeat, and Korea’s liberation, in 1945 was short lived as Soviet and American policy makers divided Korea under a joint protectorship. The Korean War, which broke out in 1950, resulted in a strategic stalemate, and the unwillingness of the United Nations to risk a larger conflict with China and perhaps the Soviet Union, ultimately resulted in a 1953 armistice, with Korea divided along roughly prewar lines. Documents from the U.S. Department of State, Division of Far Eastern Affairs, and the U.S. Department of Commerce include: “Annual Report of the Administration of Chosen, 1927-1928: Control of Opium”; “Morphine Addicts in Chosen”; laws and regulations on narcotics; an agricultural report focusing on rice production (1939); issues of repatriation of American citizens from “the Japanese Empire and from Japanese-controlled areas of the Far East” (June 1943); a report from U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk on a visit of a Japanese delegation, in April 1962, to South Korea and to North Korea outlining “… the Department’s continuing need for intelligence on North Korea.”

Norman Bethune Papers

Dr. Norman Bethune (???; 1890–1939), a Canadian thoracic surgeon, is a national hero in China. A dedicated Communist, he helped the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War. Two years later he went to China to help the Red Army. He died of blood poisoning while operating with the Chinese Eight Route Army, in November 1939. Mao Zedong, who only met Bethune once briefly, lionized him in an essay for his selfless dedication to others. This essay was included in the Red Book and Mao's collected works and was mandatory reading in China. The Norman Bethune Papers consists of letter correspondences, newspaper and magazine clippings, photographs, pamphlets, and research materials selected from several sub-collections including Norman Bethune Collection, Bethune Foundation Fonds, Roderick Stewart Fonds, Louis and Irene Kon Fonds, and Maurice McGregor Fonds.

Dr. Norman Bethune (???; 1890–1939), a Canadian thoracic surgeon, is a national hero in China. A dedicated Communist, he helped the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War. Two years later he went to China to help the Red Army. He died of blood poisoning while operating with the Chinese Eight Route Army, in November 1939. Mao Zedong, who only met Bethune once briefly, lionized him in an essay for his selfless dedication to others. This essay was included in the Red Book and Mao's collected works and was mandatory reading in China. The Norman Bethune Papers consists of letter correspondences, newspaper and magazine clippings, photographs, pamphlets, and research materials selected from several sub-collections including Norman Bethune Collection, Bethune Foundation Fonds, Roderick Stewart Fonds, Louis and Irene Kon Fonds, and Maurice McGregor Fonds.

Political Relations and Conflict between Republican China and Imperial Japan, 1930-1939: Records of the U.S. State Department

The records in this collection relate to political relations between China and Japan for the period 1930 -1939. The records are mostly instructions to and despatches from diplomatic and consular officials; the despatches are often accompanied by enclosures. Also included in these records are notes between the Department of State and foreign diplomatic representatives in the United States, memorandums prepared by officials of the Department. There are records on: the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, beginning with the Mukden incident, in 1931; military action at Shanghai in 1932; further Japanese political and economic penetration into China, 1935-1936; and the course of the undeclared war between Japan and China, 1937-1939.

The records in this collection relate to political relations between China and Japan for the period 1930 -1939. The records are mostly instructions to and despatches from diplomatic and consular officials; the despatches are often accompanied by enclosures. Also included in these records are notes between the Department of State and foreign diplomatic representatives in the United States, memorandums prepared by officials of the Department. There are records on: the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, beginning with the Mukden incident, in 1931; military action at Shanghai in 1932; further Japanese political and economic penetration into China, 1935-1936; and the course of the undeclared war between Japan and China, 1937-1939.

Records of the Far Eastern Commission, 1945-1952

All the activities of the multinational Far Eastern Commission (FEC), which oversaw the postwar governing and reconstruction of Japan, are fully documented in this publication. The collection includes two distinct sets of records: The first set contains the FEC's official policy statements, or action plans. The commission released statements on practically every aspect of the occupation, ranging from Japan's post-surrender policy to all facets of that country's economic development. The second set contains primary materials upon which policy statements were formulated and includes: reports, photographs, clippings, and position papers for investigation of the economic and political reconstruction of Japan, and the interactions of powerful nations with very different objectives.

All the activities of the multinational Far Eastern Commission (FEC), which oversaw the postwar governing and reconstruction of Japan, are fully documented in this publication. The collection includes two distinct sets of records: The first set contains the FEC's official policy statements, or action plans. The commission released statements on practically every aspect of the occupation, ranging from Japan's post-surrender policy to all facets of that country's economic development. The second set contains primary materials upon which policy statements were formulated and includes: reports, photographs, clippings, and position papers for investigation of the economic and political reconstruction of Japan, and the interactions of powerful nations with very different objectives.

Thailand: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, 1945-1954

This collection of U.S. State Department files relating to the internal and foreign affairs of Thailand contains a wide range of materials from U.S. diplomats. Included here are special reports on political and military affairs; studies and statistics on socioeconomic matters; interviews and minutes of meetings with foreign government officials; full texts of important letters, instructions, and cables sent and received by U.S. diplomatic personnel; reports and translations from foreign journals and newspapers; translations of high-level foreign government documents, including speeches, memoranda, official reports, and transcripts of political meetings and assemblies.

This collection of U.S. State Department files relating to the internal and foreign affairs of Thailand contains a wide range of materials from U.S. diplomats. Included here are special reports on political and military affairs; studies and statistics on socioeconomic matters; interviews and minutes of meetings with foreign government officials; full texts of important letters, instructions, and cables sent and received by U.S. diplomatic personnel; reports and translations from foreign journals and newspapers; translations of high-level foreign government documents, including speeches, memoranda, official reports, and transcripts of political meetings and assemblies.

Thailand: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, 1955-1963

This collection of U.S. State Department files relating to the internal and foreign affairs of Thailand contains a wide range of materials from U.S. diplomats. Included here are special reports on political and military affairs; studies and statistics on socioeconomic matters; interviews and minutes of meetings with foreign government officials; full texts of important letters, instructions, and cables sent and received by U.S. diplomatic personnel; reports and translations from foreign journals and newspapers; translations of high-level foreign government documents, including speeches, memoranda, official reports, and transcripts of political meetings and assemblies.

This collection of U.S. State Department files relating to the internal and foreign affairs of Thailand contains a wide range of materials from U.S. diplomats. Included here are special reports on political and military affairs; studies and statistics on socioeconomic matters; interviews and minutes of meetings with foreign government officials; full texts of important letters, instructions, and cables sent and received by U.S. diplomatic personnel; reports and translations from foreign journals and newspapers; translations of high-level foreign government documents, including speeches, memoranda, official reports, and transcripts of political meetings and assemblies.

China: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1930-1939: Part 1

This is one of two digital collections based on the microfilm title Records of the Department of State Relating to the Internal Affairs of China, 1930-1939. Contained here are reels 1 – 99. Part of the General Record of the Department of State, the files are in Class 8: Internal Affairs of States. The documents are primarily instructions to -- and dispatches from -- U.S. diplomatic and consular staff. Subjects include political and governmental affairs; records on Bolshevism, fascism, Nazism, and socialism; issues relating to public order; and military and naval affairs.

This is one of two digital collections based on the microfilm title Records of the Department of State Relating to the Internal Affairs of China, 1930-1939. Contained here are reels 1 – 99. Part of the General Record of the Department of State, the files are in Class 8: Internal Affairs of States. The documents are primarily instructions to -- and dispatches from -- U.S. diplomatic and consular staff. Subjects include political and governmental affairs; records on Bolshevism, fascism, Nazism, and socialism; issues relating to public order; and military and naval affairs.

China: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1930-1939: Part 2

This is one two collections based on the Records of the Department of State Relating to the Internal Affairs of China, 1930-1939. Contained here are reels 100 - 167. Part of the General Record of the Department of State, the files are in Class 8: Internal Affairs of States. The document are primarily instructions to -- and dispatches from -- U.S. diplomatic and consular staff. Subjects include social issues, education, entertainment, communications, the public press, economy and industry, and other topics.

This is one two collections based on the Records of the Department of State Relating to the Internal Affairs of China, 1930-1939. Contained here are reels 100 - 167. Part of the General Record of the Department of State, the files are in Class 8: Internal Affairs of States. The document are primarily instructions to -- and dispatches from -- U.S. diplomatic and consular staff. Subjects include social issues, education, entertainment, communications, the public press, economy and industry, and other topics.

China: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1940-1944

China in the Second World War is the focus of this collection. Documents include correspondence from the American Chamber of Commerce of Shanghai (September 1940); discussions calling for protection of American newspapers in China prior to United States entry into the war; letters to Sumner Welles, undersecretary of state; documents noting “unfavorable comments made by Japanese-controlled press ... concerning foreigners and policies of the United States and Great Britain” (June 1941); the correspondence of Everett F. Drumright, American consul (August 1942); samples of “Chinese Communist publications” supplied by the Embassy at Chungking under cover of dispatches (June 1943); among many other unique holdings. Topics include the wartime relations between the United States and China, with emphasis on China’s military position and U.S. efforts to give military assistance; U.S. Army analysis of military operations; U.S. interests regarding Kuomintang-Communist relations and negotiations; and efforts to provide technical assistance to China and to facilitate greater cultural cooperation between the United States and China.

China in the Second World War is the focus of this collection. Documents include correspondence from the American Chamber of Commerce of Shanghai (September 1940); discussions calling for protection of American newspapers in China prior to United States entry into the war; letters to Sumner Welles, undersecretary of state; documents noting “unfavorable comments made by Japanese-controlled press ... concerning foreigners and policies of the United States and Great Britain” (June 1941); the correspondence of Everett F. Drumright, American consul (August 1942); samples of “Chinese Communist publications” supplied by the Embassy at Chungking under cover of dispatches (June 1943); among many other unique holdings. Topics include the wartime relations between the United States and China, with emphasis on China’s military position and U.S. efforts to give military assistance; U.S. Army analysis of military operations; U.S. interests regarding Kuomintang-Communist relations and negotiations; and efforts to provide technical assistance to China and to facilitate greater cultural cooperation between the United States and China.

China: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1945-1949

This archive is based on the microfilm title Records of the Department of State Relating to the Internal Affairs of China, 1945-1949. Part of the General Record of the Department of State, the files are in Class 8: Internal Affairs of States. The document are primarily instructions to -- and dispatches from -- U.S. diplomatic and consular staff. Subjects include politics, military affairs, economy, and society, with separate files on provinces such as Manchuria, Yunnan, and Tibet. Folders on narcotics, entertainment, motion pictures, and other topics are also featured.

This archive is based on the microfilm title Records of the Department of State Relating to the Internal Affairs of China, 1945-1949. Part of the General Record of the Department of State, the files are in Class 8: Internal Affairs of States. The document are primarily instructions to -- and dispatches from -- U.S. diplomatic and consular staff. Subjects include politics, military affairs, economy, and society, with separate files on provinces such as Manchuria, Yunnan, and Tibet. Folders on narcotics, entertainment, motion pictures, and other topics are also featured.

Chinese Civil War and U.S.-China Relations: Records of the U.S. State Department’s Office of Chinese Affairs, 1945-1955

The U.S. State Department’s Office of Chinese Affairs, charged with operational control of American policy toward China, amassed information on virtually all aspects of life there immediately before, during, and after the revolution. Declassified by the State Department, the Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, 1945-1955, provide valuable insight into numerous domestic issues in Communist and Nationalist China, U.S. containment policy as it was extended to Asia, and Sino-American relations during the post-war period. This product comprises all 41 reels of the former Scholarly Resources microfilm product entitled Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, 1945-1955

The U.S. State Department’s Office of Chinese Affairs, charged with operational control of American policy toward China, amassed information on virtually all aspects of life there immediately before, during, and after the revolution. Declassified by the State Department, the Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, 1945-1955, provide valuable insight into numerous domestic issues in Communist and Nationalist China, U.S. containment policy as it was extended to Asia, and Sino-American relations during the post-war period. This product comprises all 41 reels of the former Scholarly Resources microfilm product entitled Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, 1945-1955

Chinese Maritime Customs Service: The Customs’ Gazette, 1869-1913

The Chinese Maritime Customs Service (????; CMCS) was established in 1854 during the Qing Dynasty and operated until the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. The Service was run by an international-- predominantly British-staffed—team and the last foreign Inspector-General resigned in 1950. Established to collect taxes on maritime trade when Chinese officials were unable to collect them during the Taiping Rebellion, its functions quickly expanded. It became responsible for domestic customs administration (the Native Customs), postal administration, harbour and waterway management, weather reporting, and anti- smuggling operations. It mapped, lit, and policed the China coast and the Yangtze river. It was involved in loan negotiations, currency reform, and financial and economic management. It was always much more than just a tax collection agency, was well informed about local conditions, deeply involved in local, provincial, and national politics, and in international affairs. The Service further involved itself in China's diplomacy, organised its representation at nearly thirty world fairs and exhibitions, and ran various educational establishments. Among its various publications, the Customs Gazette is a quarterly published by order of the Inspector General of Customs of China in Shanghai. It was established in 1869 and ceased publication in 1913. The Gazette publishes quarterly reports on trade prepared and submitted by the custom houses based across the country such as Newchuang, Tientsin, Chefoo, Hankow, Chinkiang, Ningpo, Foochow, Amoy, Swatow, Tamsui, Takow, Kiukiang, and Canton. Each report covers figures of vehicles, imports, exports, re-exports, internal transit, passenger traffic, revenue, etc. There are also sections in the Gazette on quarterly reports on dues and duties, précis of fines and confiscations, notifications, movement in the service, and appendixes. The Gazette had published a total of 180 issues and this collection contains 152 of them. and the missing issues are 29-36, 49-56, 61-64, and 77-84.

The Chinese Maritime Customs Service (????; CMCS) was established in 1854 during the Qing Dynasty and operated until the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. The Service was run by an international-- predominantly British-staffed—team and the last foreign Inspector-General resigned in 1950. Established to collect taxes on maritime trade when Chinese officials were unable to collect them during the Taiping Rebellion, its functions quickly expanded. It became responsible for domestic customs administration (the Native Customs), postal administration, harbour and waterway management, weather reporting, and anti- smuggling operations. It mapped, lit, and policed the China coast and the Yangtze river. It was involved in loan negotiations, currency reform, and financial and economic management. It was always much more than just a tax collection agency, was well informed about local conditions, deeply involved in local, provincial, and national politics, and in international affairs. The Service further involved itself in China's diplomacy, organised its representation at nearly thirty world fairs and exhibitions, and ran various educational establishments. Among its various publications, the Customs Gazette is a quarterly published by order of the Inspector General of Customs of China in Shanghai. It was established in 1869 and ceased publication in 1913. The Gazette publishes quarterly reports on trade prepared and submitted by the custom houses based across the country such as Newchuang, Tientsin, Chefoo, Hankow, Chinkiang, Ningpo, Foochow, Amoy, Swatow, Tamsui, Takow, Kiukiang, and Canton. Each report covers figures of vehicles, imports, exports, re-exports, internal transit, passenger traffic, revenue, etc. There are also sections in the Gazette on quarterly reports on dues and duties, précis of fines and confiscations, notifications, movement in the service, and appendixes. The Gazette had published a total of 180 issues and this collection contains 152 of them. and the missing issues are 29-36, 49-56, 61-64, and 77-84.

Country Intelligence Reports/State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research Reports: China

This series consists of reports, studies, and surveys on various topics of interest to the Department of State. The reports vary from short memorandums to detailed, documented studies. The topics range from individual commodities or countries to the economic and political characteristics of whole regions. This collection consists of research and intelligence reports prepared during 1941-1961 on China.

This series consists of reports, studies, and surveys on various topics of interest to the Department of State. The reports vary from short memorandums to detailed, documented studies. The topics range from individual commodities or countries to the economic and political characteristics of whole regions. This collection consists of research and intelligence reports prepared during 1941-1961 on China.

Economic Cooperation Administration's Relief Mission in Post-War China, 1946-1948

This collection demonstrates how officials of the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) looked for economic and cultural opportunities to promote U.S.-China relations, despite the prevailing Cold War suspicions of any and all communists in the early Cold War era. Topics include ECA efforts to urge the U.S. State Department to pursue a friendly economic policy toward Communist China and not to jeopardize U.S.-China economic relations; ECA representation of the opinion of many American businessmen in the face of U.S. State Department and White House opposition; the failure of the Marshall Mission to China to politicize the U.S. economic policy toward China; the effectiveness of the ECA’s implementation of aid to China; and information on the China Aid Act as part of Title IV of the Foreign Assistance Act. Documents include records of Donald S. Gilpatric, foreign service officer; regional offices correspondences; chronological files and cables; interoffice memos; subject files of the office of the director; among other records.

This collection demonstrates how officials of the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) looked for economic and cultural opportunities to promote U.S.-China relations, despite the prevailing Cold War suspicions of any and all communists in the early Cold War era. Topics include ECA efforts to urge the U.S. State Department to pursue a friendly economic policy toward Communist China and not to jeopardize U.S.-China economic relations; ECA representation of the opinion of many American businessmen in the face of U.S. State Department and White House opposition; the failure of the Marshall Mission to China to politicize the U.S. economic policy toward China; the effectiveness of the ECA’s implementation of aid to China; and information on the China Aid Act as part of Title IV of the Foreign Assistance Act. Documents include records of Donald S. Gilpatric, foreign service officer; regional offices correspondences; chronological files and cables; interoffice memos; subject files of the office of the director; among other records.

The Papers of Sir Ernest Mason Satow

A collection of prominent British diplomat Ernest M. Satow's private, diplomatic and other correspondence, letter books, papers, and diaries along with their recently-made transcripts.

A collection of prominent British diplomat Ernest M. Satow's private, diplomatic and other correspondence, letter books, papers, and diaries along with their recently-made transcripts.

General George C. Marshall's Mission to China, 1945-1947

In November 1945, President Truman appointed General George C. Marshall as special envoy to China and instructed him to negotiate a cease-fire agreement between Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist troops and Chinese Communist forces. Marshall met at length with Chiang, Chou En-lai, and Mao Tse-tung. Although a cease-fire was declared in January 1946, peace negotiations stalled over the question of political unification. Marshall returned to the United States in early 1947 without having reached a solution. This collection comprises the complete records of the Marshall mission and are among the best English-language sources available for studying the Chinese political and military situations following World War II, as well as U.S. policy there. The minutes of Marshall's meetings and reports and memoranda prepared by U.S. advisers are all included. Information on the military front is provided by reports from U.S. observers in the field who investigated cease-fire violations.

In November 1945, President Truman appointed General George C. Marshall as special envoy to China and instructed him to negotiate a cease-fire agreement between Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist troops and Chinese Communist forces. Marshall met at length with Chiang, Chou En-lai, and Mao Tse-tung. Although a cease-fire was declared in January 1946, peace negotiations stalled over the question of political unification. Marshall returned to the United States in early 1947 without having reached a solution. This collection comprises the complete records of the Marshall mission and are among the best English-language sources available for studying the Chinese political and military situations following World War II, as well as U.S. policy there. The minutes of Marshall's meetings and reports and memoranda prepared by U.S. advisers are all included. Information on the military front is provided by reports from U.S. observers in the field who investigated cease-fire violations.

German Foreign Relations and Military Activities in China, 1919-1935

This collection provides documentation on Germany's relations with China during the interwar period. Germany was instrumental in modernizing China's industrial base and provided a military training mission and equipment for the armed forces of the Republic of China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.

This collection provides documentation on Germany's relations with China during the interwar period. Germany was instrumental in modernizing China's industrial base and provided a military training mission and equipment for the armed forces of the Republic of China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.

The Earl George Macartney Collection

This is a collection of a great variety of records related to Earl George Macartney's historic mission to China during 1792-1794. The mission was dispatched by King George III of Britain in the name of congratulating Emperor Qianlong's 83rd birthday. The mission's goals included the opening of new ports for British trade in China, the establishment of a permanent embassy in Beijing, the cession of a small island for British use along China's coast, and the relaxation of trade restrictions on British merchants in Guangzhou (Canton).

This is a collection of a great variety of records related to Earl George Macartney's historic mission to China during 1792-1794. The mission was dispatched by King George III of Britain in the name of congratulating Emperor Qianlong's 83rd birthday. The mission's goals included the opening of new ports for British trade in China, the establishment of a permanent embassy in Beijing, the cession of a small island for British use along China's coast, and the relaxation of trade restrictions on British merchants in Guangzhou (Canton).

Papers of UK Consulates and Legation in China

This collection contains miscellaneous papers and reports from the British legation and consulates in China. Specifically, it comprises a catalogue of embassy archives, 1727 to 1859; trade and intelligence reports; records of legal proceedings; miscellaneous papers, some in Chinese, of the Chinese Secretary's Office; an entry book of papers relating to the East India Company in China; claims arising from Sino-Japanese hostilities, 1927 to 1940; accounts; circulars, etc.

This collection contains miscellaneous papers and reports from the British legation and consulates in China. Specifically, it comprises a catalogue of embassy archives, 1727 to 1859; trade and intelligence reports; records of legal proceedings; miscellaneous papers, some in Chinese, of the Chinese Secretary's Office; an entry book of papers relating to the East India Company in China; claims arising from Sino-Japanese hostilities, 1927 to 1940; accounts; circulars, etc.

Policing the Shanghai International Settlement, 1894-1945

This collection provides researchers with the opportunity to explore a unique period in China's struggle toward a modern existence through the International Settlement in Shanghai.

This collection provides researchers with the opportunity to explore a unique period in China's struggle toward a modern existence through the International Settlement in Shanghai.

Political, Economic, and Military Conditions in China: Reports and Correspondence of the U.S. Military Intelligence Division, 1918-1941

The documents in this collection are from the Military Intelligence Division (MID) relating to conditions in China from 1918 to 1941. In addition, there are documents created by other U.S. Government agencies and foreign governments. The MID documents from which the six file categories (general conditions, political conditions, economic conditions, army, navy, and aeronautics) reproduced in this collection were extracted is a part of the Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, Record Group (RG) 165.

The documents in this collection are from the Military Intelligence Division (MID) relating to conditions in China from 1918 to 1941. In addition, there are documents created by other U.S. Government agencies and foreign governments. The MID documents from which the six file categories (general conditions, political conditions, economic conditions, army, navy, and aeronautics) reproduced in this collection were extracted is a part of the Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, Record Group (RG) 165.

Records of the Department of State Relating to Political Relations Between China, the United States, and Other States 1910-1929

This collection includes the microfilmed U.S. Department of State records for 1910-1929 relating to the political relations between the United States and China and relations between China and other states. The collection includes predominatly of instructions to and despatches from diplomatic and consular officials; the despatches are often accompanied with enclosures. Also included in these records are the correspondence, reports, and journals of the commissions concerned with extraterritoriality in China, as well as notes between the Department of State and foreign diplomatic representatives in the United States, memoranda prepared by officials of the Department, and correspondence with officials of other government departments and with private firms and individuals.

This collection includes the microfilmed U.S. Department of State records for 1910-1929 relating to the political relations between the United States and China and relations between China and other states. The collection includes predominatly of instructions to and despatches from diplomatic and consular officials; the despatches are often accompanied with enclosures. Also included in these records are the correspondence, reports, and journals of the commissions concerned with extraterritoriality in China, as well as notes between the Department of State and foreign diplomatic representatives in the United States, memoranda prepared by officials of the Department, and correspondence with officials of other government departments and with private firms and individuals.

Records of the National Council for United States-China Trade, 1973-1983

This collection documents the formation of the National Council for United States-China Trade and its role in the development of U.S.-China trade, and the Council's library holdings relating to China's trade and economy. The Council is an association of U.S. business firms interested in trade with the People's Republic of China. It was formed in 1973 with the encouragement of the U.S. Government.

This collection documents the formation of the National Council for United States-China Trade and its role in the development of U.S.-China trade, and the Council's library holdings relating to China's trade and economy. The Council is an association of U.S. business firms interested in trade with the People's Republic of China. It was formed in 1973 with the encouragement of the U.S. Government.

Records of the U.S. Department of State’s Division of Chinese Affairs, 1944-47

This collection consists of inter and intradepartmental memorandums, reports, position papers, summaries, maps, photographs, and despatches (from US Foreign Service officers and military personnel) relating to the internal political affairs of China and United States foreign policy toward China.

This collection consists of inter and intradepartmental memorandums, reports, position papers, summaries, maps, photographs, and despatches (from US Foreign Service officers and military personnel) relating to the internal political affairs of China and United States foreign policy toward China.

Records of the U.S. Department of State’s Office of the Republic of China Affairs, Subject Files, 1951-1978

This collection consists of briefing books, correspondence, memoranda, policy papers, reports, statistics, and other miscellaneous records from the Office of the Country Director for the Republic of China.

This collection consists of briefing books, correspondence, memoranda, policy papers, reports, statistics, and other miscellaneous records from the Office of the Country Director for the Republic of China.

Records of the U.S. Information Service in China: Chinese Press Reviews and Summaries, 1944-1950

This collection of essential U.S. Information Service collections on the Civil War period provides a unique opportunity to understand immediate post-World War II Chinese history, comparative revolution, and early Cold War history. This combination of smaller press collections weave together the strands of military, social, political, and free world history and includes an analysis of how the Chinese Communist Party achieved victory in the Chinese civil war of 1946-1950.

This collection of essential U.S. Information Service collections on the Civil War period provides a unique opportunity to understand immediate post-World War II Chinese history, comparative revolution, and early Cold War history. This combination of smaller press collections weave together the strands of military, social, political, and free world history and includes an analysis of how the Chinese Communist Party achieved victory in the Chinese civil war of 1946-1950.

Shanghai Municipal Council: The Municipal Gazette, 1908-1940

Shanghai Municipal Council: The Municipal Gazette, 1908-1940

Shanghai Municipal Council: The Municipal Gazette, 1908-1940

Minutes (The) of the Shanghai Municipal Council, 1854-1943

This collection replicates all the minutes of meetings held by the Board of Directors of the Shanghai Municipal Council from July 1854 to December 1943. A wide range of topics were discussed at these board meetings, such as sanitation, transportation, telecommunication and postal service, taxation, urban planning, gas supply, street lighting, rickshaw operator management, animal protection, and police system. The minutes taken from July 1854 to December 1906 are handwritten while the rest are typewritten.

This collection replicates all the minutes of meetings held by the Board of Directors of the Shanghai Municipal Council from July 1854 to December 1943. A wide range of topics were discussed at these board meetings, such as sanitation, transportation, telecommunication and postal service, taxation, urban planning, gas supply, street lighting, rickshaw operator management, animal protection, and police system. The minutes taken from July 1854 to December 1906 are handwritten while the rest are typewritten.

Tiananmen Square and U.S.-China relations, 1989-1993

This digital collection reviews U.S.-China relations in the post-Cold War Era, and analyzes the significance of the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstrations, China's human rights issues, and resumption of World Bank loans to China in July 1990.

This digital collection reviews U.S.-China relations in the post-Cold War Era, and analyzes the significance of the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstrations, China's human rights issues, and resumption of World Bank loans to China in July 1990.

India from Crown Rule to Republic, 1945-1949: Records of the U.S. State Department

Comprising records of the State Department's Central Classified Files, this collection contains records relating to the internal affairs of India, during the period 1945-1949. The records include instructions sent to and correspondence received by the State Department; the State Department's internal documentation, as well as correspondence between the Department and other federal departments and agencies, Congress, and private individuals and organizations; telegrams, airgrams, instructions, inquiries, studies, memoranda, situation reports, translations, special reports, plans, and official and unofficial correspondence. There is essential documentation on these subjects: political parties and elections; unrest and revolution; human rights; government; administration; fiscal and monetary issues; labor; housing; police and crime; public health; national defense; foreign policymaking; alliances; religion; culture; education; trade; industry; natural resources; communications; transportation; and many more. These State Department records offer authoritative, in-depth, and timely documentation and analysis that cannot be matched.

Comprising records of the State Department's Central Classified Files, this collection contains records relating to the internal affairs of India, during the period 1945-1949. The records include instructions sent to and correspondence received by the State Department; the State Department's internal documentation, as well as correspondence between the Department and other federal departments and agencies, Congress, and private individuals and organizations; telegrams, airgrams, instructions, inquiries, studies, memoranda, situation reports, translations, special reports, plans, and official and unofficial correspondence. There is essential documentation on these subjects: political parties and elections; unrest and revolution; human rights; government; administration; fiscal and monetary issues; labor; housing; police and crime; public health; national defense; foreign policymaking; alliances; religion; culture; education; trade; industry; natural resources; communications; transportation; and many more. These State Department records offer authoritative, in-depth, and timely documentation and analysis that cannot be matched.

India-Pakistan Conflict: Records of the U.S. State Department, February 1963-1966                 

Over 15,000 pages of State Department Central Files on India and Pakistan from 1963 through 1966 make this collection a standard documentary resource for the study of the political relations between India and Pakistan during a crucial period in the Cold War and the shifting alliances and alignments in South Asia.

Over 15,000 pages of State Department Central Files on India and Pakistan from 1963 through 1966 make this collection a standard documentary resource for the study of the political relations between India and Pakistan during a crucial period in the Cold War and the shifting alliances and alignments in South Asia.

Indian Army (The) and Colonial Warfare on the Frontiers of India, 1914-1920

For generations of British and Indian Officers and men, the North-West Frontier was the scene of repeated skirmishes and major campaigns against the trans-border Pathan tribes who inhabited the mountainous no-man's land between India and Afghanistan. This collection contains Army Lists; Orders; Instructions; Regulations; Acts; Manuals; Strength Returns; Orders of Battle; Administration Summaries; organization, commissions, committees, reports, maneuvers; departments of the Indian Army; and regimental narratives. This collection is a welcome addition to the new-flourishing literature on the military history of South Asia and the growing field of serious study of the British military experience in India.

For generations of British and Indian Officers and men, the North-West Frontier was the scene of repeated skirmishes and major campaigns against the trans-border Pathan tribes who inhabited the mountainous no-man's land between India and Afghanistan. This collection contains Army Lists; Orders; Instructions; Regulations; Acts; Manuals; Strength Returns; Orders of Battle; Administration Summaries; organization, commissions, committees, reports, maneuvers; departments of the Indian Army; and regimental narratives. This collection is a welcome addition to the new-flourishing literature on the military history of South Asia and the growing field of serious study of the British military experience in India.

Argentina: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

This archive focuses on Argentina after the era of Juan Perón. In this period civilian administrations traded power, trying, with limited success, to deal with diminished economic growth and continued social and labor demands. The documents offer insight into various aspects of the Argentine economy. Examples include: the minister of public works discussing a program in “highways, railroads, and water transport” (June 1960); a report on the newly appointed undersecretary of mines requesting that the embassy’s economic counselor have the U.S. government “examine the possibilities of procurement of tungsten” (June 1961); and a resolution by the National Cinematographic Institute requiring that all films exhibited in motion picture theaters feature Spanish subtitles “accompanied by written proof that the dialogue has been has been translated and subtitled in Argentina” (April 1962).

This archive focuses on Argentina after the era of Juan Perón. In this period civilian administrations traded power, trying, with limited success, to deal with diminished economic growth and continued social and labor demands. The documents offer insight into various aspects of the Argentine economy. Examples include: the minister of public works discussing a program in “highways, railroads, and water transport” (June 1960); a report on the newly appointed undersecretary of mines requesting that the embassy’s economic counselor have the U.S. government “examine the possibilities of procurement of tungsten” (June 1961); and a resolution by the National Cinematographic Institute requiring that all films exhibited in motion picture theaters feature Spanish subtitles “accompanied by written proof that the dialogue has been has been translated and subtitled in Argentina” (April 1962).

Bolivia: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

The backstory to this archive revolves around the rise of the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), which emerged as a broadly based party. Under President Victor Paz Estenssoro (1907-2001), the MNR “introduced universal adult suffrage, carried out a sweeping land reform, promoted rural education, and nationalized the country’s largest tin mines. Twelve years of tumultuous rule left the MNR divided.” In 1964, a military junta overthrew President Paz Estenssoro at the outset of his third term. Documents in this collection offer insight into the U.S. state department during the Cold War. Examples include analysis of labor union leadership and its relationship to Communists “united in opposition” and attempting to impose a “Fascist regime in Bolivia.” Periodicals such as Prescenia and El Diario are characterized as “organs at service of Communists” (December 1960). The embassy notes how El Pueblo, the Communist newspaper in La Paz, reports a Pravda correspondent expressing “great interest in ‘promoting’ relations with USSR” (March 1962).

The backstory to this archive revolves around the rise of the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), which emerged as a broadly based party. Under President Victor Paz Estenssoro (1907-2001), the MNR “introduced universal adult suffrage, carried out a sweeping land reform, promoted rural education, and nationalized the country’s largest tin mines. Twelve years of tumultuous rule left the MNR divided.” In 1964, a military junta overthrew President Paz Estenssoro at the outset of his third term. Documents in this collection offer insight into the U.S. state department during the Cold War. Examples include analysis of labor union leadership and its relationship to Communists “united in opposition” and attempting to impose a “Fascist regime in Bolivia.” Periodicals such as Prescenia and El Diario are characterized as “organs at service of Communists” (December 1960). The embassy notes how El Pueblo, the Communist newspaper in La Paz, reports a Pravda correspondent expressing “great interest in ‘promoting’ relations with USSR” (March 1962).

Brazil: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

This archive focuses on Brazil in the early 1960s. Sample documents include a report from Recife on the cultivation and export of pineapples, “especially in the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba,” as “an increasing source of foreign exchange for the Northeast.” A November 1962 memorandum details the issuance of 40 billion cruzeiros in new currency “to meet runs on commercial banks during the political crisis, gradually flowing back to the Bank of Brazil following the return of normal conditions.” The collection covers the period following the resignation from the presidency of Janio Quadros in 1961 and the succession of Vice President Joao Goulart, whose years in office were marked by high inflation, economic stagnation, and the increasing influence of radical political elements. The armed forces, alarmed by these developments, staged a coup on March 31, 1964, during the administration of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.

This archive focuses on Brazil in the early 1960s. Sample documents include a report from Recife on the cultivation and export of pineapples, “especially in the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba,” as “an increasing source of foreign exchange for the Northeast.” A November 1962 memorandum details the issuance of 40 billion cruzeiros in new currency “to meet runs on commercial banks during the political crisis, gradually flowing back to the Bank of Brazil following the return of normal conditions.” The collection covers the period following the resignation from the presidency of Janio Quadros in 1961 and the succession of Vice President Joao Goulart, whose years in office were marked by high inflation, economic stagnation, and the increasing influence of radical political elements. The armed forces, alarmed by these developments, staged a coup on March 31, 1964, during the administration of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.

Chile: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1930-1963

The records in this massive archive range from the era of the Great Depression to the height of the Cold War. The period of Radical Party dominance (1932-1952) saw the emergence of a strong middle-class party and its role as the key force in coalition governments. In this era the state steadily increased its participation in the Chilean economy. Documents include: negotiations with British nitrate interests (March 1934); U.S. state department concern of a possible “crisis in Chilean copper production” (October 1940); troops on alert following the refusal of telephone and electric company employees to obey orders to end a strike (January 1950); a student strike at the University of Concepción demanding adequate financing for the university (April 1950); and a U.S. embassy report noting “Chilean Roman Catholic Church Initiates Own Agrarian Reform Program” and “Moscow Conference Attracts Chileans” (July 1962).

The records in this massive archive range from the era of the Great Depression to the height of the Cold War. The period of Radical Party dominance (1932-1952) saw the emergence of a strong middle-class party and its role as the key force in coalition governments. In this era the state steadily increased its participation in the Chilean economy. Documents include: negotiations with British nitrate interests (March 1934); U.S. state department concern of a possible “crisis in Chilean copper production” (October 1940); troops on alert following the refusal of telephone and electric company employees to obey orders to end a strike (January 1950); a student strike at the University of Concepción demanding adequate financing for the university (April 1950); and a U.S. embassy report noting “Chilean Roman Catholic Church Initiates Own Agrarian Reform Program” and “Moscow Conference Attracts Chileans” (July 1962).

Colección Revolución, 1910 – 1921

This collection was collected and collated by members of the Committee on Historical Research of the Mexican Revolution, under the direction of Isidro Fabela in 1958, in preparation for the publication of historical documents on the Mexican Revolution. This collection reproduces documents from various archives, under the protection of the Archivo General de la Nación, and is divided into the following documentary series: (1) The Flores Brothers revolutionary activities MAGO: movement Comun in the Baja California region; (2) Revolution and regime Madero: correspondence, reports and military activities, reports on the political situation in some States; (3) Emiliano Zapata, the Plan of Ayala and his agrarian policy: land deals, reports of troops and mail operations; (4) Revolution and regime Constitutionalist: circulars, laws, decrees and manifestos; and, (5) Sovereign revolutionary Convention: together prior to the sessions and sessions held 1914-1915.

This collection was collected and collated by members of the Committee on Historical Research of the Mexican Revolution, under the direction of Isidro Fabela in 1958, in preparation for the publication of historical documents on the Mexican Revolution. This collection reproduces documents from various archives, under the protection of the Archivo General de la Nación, and is divided into the following documentary series: (1) The Flores Brothers revolutionary activities MAGO: movement Comun in the Baja California region; (2) Revolution and regime Madero: correspondence, reports and military activities, reports on the political situation in some States; (3) Emiliano Zapata, the Plan of Ayala and his agrarian policy: land deals, reports of troops and mail operations; (4) Revolution and regime Constitutionalist: circulars, laws, decrees and manifestos; and, (5) Sovereign revolutionary Convention: together prior to the sessions and sessions held 1914-1915.

Colombia: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

The documents in this collection offer a snapshot of Colombia at the height of the Cold War. Numerous records track the impact of the Castro revolution in Cuba, for example: “Colombia Tourist Agent Visits Embassy Regarding Prospective Travel of Colombians on Planned USSR Flights Between Havana and Moscow”; and naval equipment on loan: “Colombian Navy would like to lease ... from the United States Navy, under similar terms as those contained in the lease for the Floating Dry Dock.” On the economy: National Coffee Federation tabulations (September 1960); and “it was a sellers’ market during December for anyone holding dollars for sale as the Colombian peso continued to fall in relation to the dollar. The free market has advanced nervousness since October” (15 January 1963).

The documents in this collection offer a snapshot of Colombia at the height of the Cold War. Numerous records track the impact of the Castro revolution in Cuba, for example: “Colombia Tourist Agent Visits Embassy Regarding Prospective Travel of Colombians on Planned USSR Flights Between Havana and Moscow”; and naval equipment on loan: “Colombian Navy would like to lease ... from the United States Navy, under similar terms as those contained in the lease for the Floating Dry Dock.” On the economy: National Coffee Federation tabulations (September 1960); and “it was a sellers’ market during December for anyone holding dollars for sale as the Colombian peso continued to fall in relation to the dollar. The free market has advanced nervousness since October” (15 January 1963).

Crisis in the Dominican Republic: Records of the U.S. State Department Central Files, February 1963-1966

The Dominican Republic has experienced many setbacks on the road to democracy. Dominican political history has been defined by traditions of “personalism,” militarism, and social and economic elitism which has undermined its efforts to establish liberal constitutional rule. This collection includes State Department, U.S. Embassy, and Dominican republic governmental dispatches, instructions, and miscellaneous correspondence dealing with topics such as political affairs and government; public order and safety; military affairs; social matters (including history and culture); economic conditions (including immigration and emigration); industry and agriculture; communications and transportation; and navigation. The material is in English.

The Dominican Republic has experienced many setbacks on the road to democracy. Dominican political history has been defined by traditions of “personalism,” militarism, and social and economic elitism which has undermined its efforts to establish liberal constitutional rule. This collection includes State Department, U.S. Embassy, and Dominican republic governmental dispatches, instructions, and miscellaneous correspondence dealing with topics such as political affairs and government; public order and safety; military affairs; social matters (including history and culture); economic conditions (including immigration and emigration); industry and agriculture; communications and transportation; and navigation. The material is in English.

Cuartel General del Sur, 1910 – 1925

The collection contains correspondence addressed to Emiliano Zapata; combat reports; relations with troop commanders and officers; promotion and appointment requests; allegations of abuses committed by military personnel; applications for food, uniforms and ammunition; letters and telegrams on the transfer of prisoners. Document types include: transcripts, journals, laws and draft laws on land, drafts of circulars and manifestos by General Emiliano Zapata; and documents relating to the signing and ratification of the Plan de Ayala organizations.

The collection contains correspondence addressed to Emiliano Zapata; combat reports; relations with troop commanders and officers; promotion and appointment requests; allegations of abuses committed by military personnel; applications for food, uniforms and ammunition; letters and telegrams on the transfer of prisoners. Document types include: transcripts, journals, laws and draft laws on land, drafts of circulars and manifestos by General Emiliano Zapata; and documents relating to the signing and ratification of the Plan de Ayala organizations.

Ecuador: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

The documents in this archive trace developments primarily during the administration of John F. Kennedy. Included here are plans by the U.S. Air Force, under an existing understanding between Quito and Washington, to commence photograph mapping operations in Central and Western Ecuador. Documents on commercial affairs include a report on the robust market of U.S. ophthalmic goods in Ecuador with continuing competition expected “from French, German, Swiss, and Japanese products”; and a proposed visit by U.S. fisheries consultants (June 1962).

The documents in this archive trace developments primarily during the administration of John F. Kennedy. Included here are plans by the U.S. Air Force, under an existing understanding between Quito and Washington, to commence photograph mapping operations in Central and Western Ecuador. Documents on commercial affairs include a report on the robust market of U.S. ophthalmic goods in Ecuador with continuing competition expected “from French, German, Swiss, and Japanese products”; and a proposed visit by U.S. fisheries consultants (June 1962).

Emiliano Zapata, 1901 – 1919

This collection comprises documentation related to the activities of Emiliano Zapata and the Liberation Army of the South. It consists mainly of correspondence exchanged between the headquarters and the camps and regional commands. Documents include requests for economic aid; guarantees to people for jobs and food; complaints of abuses; reports, promotions, and notifications to the troops and brigades, as well as information on pay. The documentation also includes acts or proceedings on revolutionary and civil trials; correspondence with municipal or State authorities in connection with problems of land, water, control of finance, trade, etc.; and, information concerning the revolutionary Convention sovereign.

This collection comprises documentation related to the activities of Emiliano Zapata and the Liberation Army of the South. It consists mainly of correspondence exchanged between the headquarters and the camps and regional commands. Documents include requests for economic aid; guarantees to people for jobs and food; complaints of abuses; reports, promotions, and notifications to the troops and brigades, as well as information on pay. The documentation also includes acts or proceedings on revolutionary and civil trials; correspondence with municipal or State authorities in connection with problems of land, water, control of finance, trade, etc.; and, information concerning the revolutionary Convention sovereign.

Feminism in Cuba, 1898-1958

This collection, compiled from Cuban sources, spans the period from Cuban independence to the end of the Batista regime. The collection sheds light on Cuban feminism, women in politics, literature by Cuban women and the legal status of Cuban women.

This collection, compiled from Cuban sources, spans the period from Cuban independence to the end of the Batista regime. The collection sheds light on Cuban feminism, women in politics, literature by Cuban women and the legal status of Cuban women.

Foreign Relations between Latin America and the Caribbean States, 1930-1944

Organized by country, this collection covers a wide range of viewpoints on political, social, and economic issues. It sheds light on the foreign relations interactions between Central American and South American countries. In the Caribbean, Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic are represented. This collection includes cables, memoranda, correspondence, reports and analyzes, and treaties.

Organized by country, this collection covers a wide range of viewpoints on political, social, and economic issues. It sheds light on the foreign relations interactions between Central American and South American countries. In the Caribbean, Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic are represented. This collection includes cables, memoranda, correspondence, reports and analyzes, and treaties.

Foreign Relations between the U.S. and Latin America and the Caribbean States, 1930-1944

This collection covers a wide range of viewpoints on political, social, and economic issues between the U.S. and Latin America. It sheds light on American foreign relations and interactions between the U.S. and Central and South American countries. In the Caribbean, Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic are represented. This collection includes cables, memoranda, correspondence, reports and analyzes, and treaties.

This collection covers a wide range of viewpoints on political, social, and economic issues between the U.S. and Latin America. It sheds light on American foreign relations and interactions between the U.S. and Central and South American countries. In the Caribbean, Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic are represented. This collection includes cables, memoranda, correspondence, reports and analyzes, and treaties.

Nicaragua: Political Instability and U.S. Intervention, 1910-1933

The United States occupation of Nicaragua was part of the larger conflict known as the Banana Wars. The formal occupation began in 1912, although several other operations were conducted before the full scale invasion. United States military interventions in Nicaragua were intended to prevent the construction of the Nicaraguan Canal by any nation but the United States. Nicaragua assumed a quasi-protectorate status under the 1916 Chamorro-Bryan Treaty. The occupation ended as Augusto César Sandino, a Nicaraguan revolutionary, led guerrilla armies against U.S. troops. The onset of the Great Depression made it costly for the U.S. government to maintain the occupation so a withdrawal was ordered in 1933. Comprising records of the State Department's Central Classified Files, this collection contains records relating to the internal affairs of India, during the period 1945-1949. The records include instructions sent to and correspondence received by the State Department; the State Department's internal documentation, as well as correspondence between the Department and other federal departments and agencies, Congress, and private individuals and organizations; telegrams, airgrams, instructions, inquiries, studies, memoranda, situation reports, translations, special reports, plans, and official and unofficial correspondence.

The United States occupation of Nicaragua was part of the larger conflict known as the Banana Wars. The formal occupation began in 1912, although several other operations were conducted before the full scale invasion. United States military interventions in Nicaragua were intended to prevent the construction of the Nicaraguan Canal by any nation but the United States. Nicaragua assumed a quasi-protectorate status under the 1916 Chamorro-Bryan Treaty. The occupation ended as Augusto César Sandino, a Nicaraguan revolutionary, led guerrilla armies against U.S. troops. The onset of the Great Depression made it costly for the U.S. government to maintain the occupation so a withdrawal was ordered in 1933. Comprising records of the State Department's Central Classified Files, this collection contains records relating to the internal affairs of India, during the period 1945-1949. The records include instructions sent to and correspondence received by the State Department; the State Department's internal documentation, as well as correspondence between the Department and other federal departments and agencies, Congress, and private individuals and organizations; telegrams, airgrams, instructions, inquiries, studies, memoranda, situation reports, translations, special reports, plans, and official and unofficial correspondence.

Nicaragua: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

The documents in this archive trace developments primarily during the administration of President John F. Kennedy. Reports on commerce abound, including memoranda from the embassy in Managua on total sugar production estimates that may enter the United States. Memoranda on social welfare include: a survey of government-sponsored social welfare organizations as well as details on the National Social Assistance Lottery and the National Committee for the Anti-Tuberculosis Campaign. From the embassy at San José (Costa Rica) various items are included, such as: “Central America Common Market Meetings Completed”; “Pure Oil Company Not ’In’ Oil Refinery Deal”; and “Tripartite Treaty of Commerce” [between Costa Rica, Panama, and Nicaragua] “Goes into Effect” (August 1962).

The documents in this archive trace developments primarily during the administration of President John F. Kennedy. Reports on commerce abound, including memoranda from the embassy in Managua on total sugar production estimates that may enter the United States. Memoranda on social welfare include: a survey of government-sponsored social welfare organizations as well as details on the National Social Assistance Lottery and the National Committee for the Anti-Tuberculosis Campaign. From the embassy at San José (Costa Rica) various items are included, such as: “Central America Common Market Meetings Completed”; “Pure Oil Company Not ’In’ Oil Refinery Deal”; and “Tripartite Treaty of Commerce” [between Costa Rica, Panama, and Nicaragua] “Goes into Effect” (August 1962).

Panama: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1950-1963

Documents in this collection trace U.S.-Panamanian relations during the Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy administrations. Issues relating to shipping and the significance of the Panama Canal during the Cold War include: “Panama Stymies Use of Her Flag in Vietminh Trade ... A parallel situation exists in the trade with Red China” (September 1955); and “Ships Enroute to U.S. from Soviet or Satellite Ports” (October 1957). A letter to U.S. Ambassador Julian F. Harrington details “the possibility that the Conference on the Law of the Sea in 1960 would result in a general acceptance by the United States of a six-mile breadth of territorial sea” (April 1960). Other documents chart day-to-day aspects of the economy: a report on sugar production with tables on sugar production and consumption (June 1950); and an announcement by the Panamá Canal Company of a contract award for native lumber (August 1952).

Documents in this collection trace U.S.-Panamanian relations during the Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy administrations. Issues relating to shipping and the significance of the Panama Canal during the Cold War include: “Panama Stymies Use of Her Flag in Vietminh Trade ... A parallel situation exists in the trade with Red China” (September 1955); and “Ships Enroute to U.S. from Soviet or Satellite Ports” (October 1957). A letter to U.S. Ambassador Julian F. Harrington details “the possibility that the Conference on the Law of the Sea in 1960 would result in a general acceptance by the United States of a six-mile breadth of territorial sea” (April 1960). Other documents chart day-to-day aspects of the economy: a report on sugar production with tables on sugar production and consumption (June 1950); and an announcement by the Panamá Canal Company of a contract award for native lumber (August 1952).

Peru: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

Documents in this collection describe U.S.-Peruvian relations during the Cold War. Examples include: “Both Prensa Latina and Agence France Presse in Lima are staffed by Communists and Pro-Communists”; “Yugoslav ship calls in Peru”; memoranda on U.S. military interest in obtaining permission for essential air transportation traffic transit in Peru; and a letter from Texas Petroleum Company to the Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs regarding litigation between the Peruvian Government and the Company. Other records include: “Change in Method of Tax Payment for Foreign Mining Companies in Peru” (January 1960); and “Peruvian ‘Rights’ in Antarctica” (May 1962).

Documents in this collection describe U.S.-Peruvian relations during the Cold War. Examples include: “Both Prensa Latina and Agence France Presse in Lima are staffed by Communists and Pro-Communists”; “Yugoslav ship calls in Peru”; memoranda on U.S. military interest in obtaining permission for essential air transportation traffic transit in Peru; and a letter from Texas Petroleum Company to the Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs regarding litigation between the Peruvian Government and the Company. Other records include: “Change in Method of Tax Payment for Foreign Mining Companies in Peru” (January 1960); and “Peruvian ‘Rights’ in Antarctica” (May 1962).

Revolution in Honduras and American Business: The Quintessential "Banana Republic"

Honduras is the "standard" for a "banana republic" having been O. Henry's model. This collection would detail both the political and financial machinations of the fruit companies, but also the graft and corruption of the national government, the American banking community's loans, the U.S. government's response and the various aborted popular/revolutionary uprisings. The largest single group of records relates to Honduran political affairs; pertaining chiefly to the turbulent political situation and almost continuous revolutionary activity in Honduras. Included are discussions of boundary disputes and border troubles with EL Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala and revolutionary movements originating from these neighboring countries and from Mexico; German activities in Honduras in World War I; landing of U.S. Marines to protect U.S. citizens during revolutions; cases of alleged violation of neutrality laws, and shipment of arms and munitions to Honduras from the U.S.; the participation of Sumner Welles in a conference to mediate the revolution in 1924; and presidential campaigns and elections. Another large group of records relates to financial affairs and concerns such matters as the proposed adjustment of the Honduran debt by the United States, loan negotiations and agreements between the Republic of Honduras and the J. P. Morgan Co. and other banking groups in the U.S., re-funding of the internal debt of Honduras, settlement of Honduras' foreign debt, and loans to the Government of Honduras by various fruit companies.

Honduras is the "standard" for a "banana republic" having been O. Henry's model. This collection would detail both the political and financial machinations of the fruit companies, but also the graft and corruption of the national government, the American banking community's loans, the U.S. government's response and the various aborted popular/revolutionary uprisings. The largest single group of records relates to Honduran political affairs; pertaining chiefly to the turbulent political situation and almost continuous revolutionary activity in Honduras. Included are discussions of boundary disputes and border troubles with EL Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala and revolutionary movements originating from these neighboring countries and from Mexico; German activities in Honduras in World War I; landing of U.S. Marines to protect U.S. citizens during revolutions; cases of alleged violation of neutrality laws, and shipment of arms and munitions to Honduras from the U.S.; the participation of Sumner Welles in a conference to mediate the revolution in 1924; and presidential campaigns and elections. Another large group of records relates to financial affairs and concerns such matters as the proposed adjustment of the Honduran debt by the United States, loan negotiations and agreements between the Republic of Honduras and the J. P. Morgan Co. and other banking groups in the U.S., re-funding of the internal debt of Honduras, settlement of Honduras' foreign debt, and loans to the Government of Honduras by various fruit companies.

Revolution in Mexico, the 1917 Constitution, and Its Aftermath: Records of the U.S. State Department

This collection comprises U.S. State Department documents related to the Mexican Revolution, which began in 1910 and continued sporadically until the new Constitution was adopted in 1917, through to and including the election of Calles. There are accounts of major military and political events, such as the growing opposition in 1910 to the regime of Porfirio Diaz; the forced resignation of Diaz in 1911 and the election of the revolutionary leader, Francisco I. Madero, as President; the assassination of Madero in 1913, followed by the military dictatorship of Victoriano Huerta; the growing unrest and the revolt against Huerta that brought about his resignation in July 1914; the arrest of American marines at Tampico and the military occupation of Veracruz by the U.S. in April 1914; the Convention at Aguascalientes in the latter part of 1914, an unsuccessful attempt by the revolutionary leaders Venustiano Carranza, Francisco "Pancho" Villa, and Emiliano Zapata to settle their differences; the defeat of Villa in 1915 by the Carranza forces under command of Alvaro Obregon and the de facto recognition by the United States of the Mexican Government under Carranza; the U. S. expedition into Mexico under General Pershing to pursue Villa after his raids across the border in March 1916; the revolt resulting in the death of Carranza in 1920 and the election of Obregon as President; the de jure recognition of Mexico by the U.S. in 1923; and the election of Plutarco Elias Calles as President in 1924.

This collection comprises U.S. State Department documents related to the Mexican Revolution, which began in 1910 and continued sporadically until the new Constitution was adopted in 1917, through to and including the election of Calles. There are accounts of major military and political events, such as the growing opposition in 1910 to the regime of Porfirio Diaz; the forced resignation of Diaz in 1911 and the election of the revolutionary leader, Francisco I. Madero, as President; the assassination of Madero in 1913, followed by the military dictatorship of Victoriano Huerta; the growing unrest and the revolt against Huerta that brought about his resignation in July 1914; the arrest of American marines at Tampico and the military occupation of Veracruz by the U.S. in April 1914; the Convention at Aguascalientes in the latter part of 1914, an unsuccessful attempt by the revolutionary leaders Venustiano Carranza, Francisco "Pancho" Villa, and Emiliano Zapata to settle their differences; the defeat of Villa in 1915 by the Carranza forces under command of Alvaro Obregon and the de facto recognition by the United States of the Mexican Government under Carranza; the U. S. expedition into Mexico under General Pershing to pursue Villa after his raids across the border in March 1916; the revolt resulting in the death of Carranza in 1920 and the election of Obregon as President; the de jure recognition of Mexico by the U.S. in 1923; and the election of Plutarco Elias Calles as President in 1924.

SUR

South American Literary Library

South American Literary Library

Mafia in Florida and Cuba: FBI Surveillance of Meyer Lansky and Santo Trafficante, Jr.

This collection comprises materials on Santo Trafficante, Jr., Meyer Lansky, and Lucky Luciano, including FBI surveillance and informant reports and correspondence from a variety of offices including, Miami, Tampa, Jacksonville, New York City, New Orleans, Atlanta, New Haven, New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago; Justice Department memoranda, correspondence, and analyses; Newsclippings and articles; Domestic Intelligence Section reports; Transcriptions of wiretaps, typewriter tapes, and coded messages; Memoranda of conversations.

This collection comprises materials on Santo Trafficante, Jr., Meyer Lansky, and Lucky Luciano, including FBI surveillance and informant reports and correspondence from a variety of offices including, Miami, Tampa, Jacksonville, New York City, New Orleans, Atlanta, New Haven, New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago; Justice Department memoranda, correspondence, and analyses; Newsclippings and articles; Domestic Intelligence Section reports; Transcriptions of wiretaps, typewriter tapes, and coded messages; Memoranda of conversations.

Venezuela: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963

Documents in this collection illustrate Cold War contexts, the role of the United States in Venezuela’s foreign affairs, and the centrality of oil in the Venezuelan economy. Examples include a U.S. Department of State telegram titled “Communist Subversion in Venezuela,” which details “three foreign Communists” being held on “charges of conspiring to overthrow the government, illegally purchasing arms and disseminating Red propaganda...” Illustrations of the Castro-Communist insurgency in Venezuela include a letter from Ambassador Stewart C. Allen to the Secretary of State that details a detachment of Marines being sent “[to] guard Maracaibo Lake installations and security installations elsewhere being strengthened. “Meanwhile arrest extremist labor leaders continuing in oil fields on direct instructions [to] State Governors from President” (October 1962). Other documents detail a range of issues, such as: clarification of Venezuelan boundaries; multiple balance sheets for the Central Bank of Venezuela; and police corruption in Zulia, one of Venezuela’s twenty-three states.

Documents in this collection illustrate Cold War contexts, the role of the United States in Venezuela’s foreign affairs, and the centrality of oil in the Venezuelan economy. Examples include a U.S. Department of State telegram titled “Communist Subversion in Venezuela,” which details “three foreign Communists” being held on “charges of conspiring to overthrow the government, illegally purchasing arms and disseminating Red propaganda...” Illustrations of the Castro-Communist insurgency in Venezuela include a letter from Ambassador Stewart C. Allen to the Secretary of State that details a detachment of Marines being sent “[to] guard Maracaibo Lake installations and security installations elsewhere being strengthened. “Meanwhile arrest extremist labor leaders continuing in oil fields on direct instructions [to] State Governors from President” (October 1962). Other documents detail a range of issues, such as: clarification of Venezuelan boundaries; multiple balance sheets for the Central Bank of Venezuela; and police corruption in Zulia, one of Venezuela’s twenty-three states.

Ambassador Graham Martin and the Saigon Embassy's Back Channel Communication Files, 1963-1975

The bulk of the materials in this collection are "backchannel" cables between the U.S. ambassadors in Saigon (Henry Cabot Lodge, Ellsworth Bunker, and Graham Martin, successively) and the President's national security advisers (McGeorge Bundy, Henry Kissinger, and Brent Scowcroft, successively) regarding the situation in South Vietnam or the peace negotiations. In addition, there are straight State Department cables, usually between the Secretary of State and the U.S. ambassador in Saigon; talking points prepared for meetings between the ambassador and South Vietnamese officials, mainly President Nguyen Van Thieu; reports and memoranda of conversations of those meetings; drafts of speeches and proposed agreements prepared by both sides; military situation reports; and intelligence reports.

The bulk of the materials in this collection are "backchannel" cables between the U.S. ambassadors in Saigon (Henry Cabot Lodge, Ellsworth Bunker, and Graham Martin, successively) and the President's national security advisers (McGeorge Bundy, Henry Kissinger, and Brent Scowcroft, successively) regarding the situation in South Vietnam or the peace negotiations. In addition, there are straight State Department cables, usually between the Secretary of State and the U.S. ambassador in Saigon; talking points prepared for meetings between the ambassador and South Vietnamese officials, mainly President Nguyen Van Thieu; reports and memoranda of conversations of those meetings; drafts of speeches and proposed agreements prepared by both sides; military situation reports; and intelligence reports.

Cambodia: Records of the Department of State, 1960-1963

This collection provides a window into the political, social, and economic development of Cambodia, the rapidly maturing “modern” state in the heart of Southeast Asia. Traced here is the critical legacy of Prince Norodom Sihanouk (1922-2012), the nation’s controversial and paradoxical leader. Khmer nationalism, loyalty to the monarch, struggle against injustice and corruption, and protection of the Buddhist religion were in the forefront of developments in this period. The archive is an essential resource for the study of Southeast Asian history and the U.S. role in the war in Vietnam. The files are arranged according to the classification system of U.S. State Department Records, and they cover a wide range of internal political affairs.

This collection provides a window into the political, social, and economic development of Cambodia, the rapidly maturing “modern” state in the heart of Southeast Asia. Traced here is the critical legacy of Prince Norodom Sihanouk (1922-2012), the nation’s controversial and paradoxical leader. Khmer nationalism, loyalty to the monarch, struggle against injustice and corruption, and protection of the Buddhist religion were in the forefront of developments in this period. The archive is an essential resource for the study of Southeast Asian history and the U.S. role in the war in Vietnam. The files are arranged according to the classification system of U.S. State Department Records, and they cover a wide range of internal political affairs.

European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: Colonialism and Nationalism in the Dutch East Indies, 1910-1930

The Dutch East Indies experienced the replacement of company rule by Dutch government rule and the complete transformation of Java into a colonial society and the successful extension of colonial rule to Sumatra and the eastern archipelago during the early 20th century. The boundaries of the modern state of Indonesia were defined during this time and the process of generally exploitative political, military, and economic integration began. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the Dutch colonial government and the activities of the native peoples.

The Dutch East Indies experienced the replacement of company rule by Dutch government rule and the complete transformation of Java into a colonial society and the successful extension of colonial rule to Sumatra and the eastern archipelago during the early 20th century. The boundaries of the modern state of Indonesia were defined during this time and the process of generally exploitative political, military, and economic integration began. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the Dutch colonial government and the activities of the native peoples.

FBI File: American POWs/MIAs in Southeast Asia

This FBI file, which covers the period 1970 to 1993, began as an investigation into the Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam (COLIFAM). Included here are interviews with hundreds of Vietnamese refugees as well as information on how the North Vietnamese hoarded personal items of American servicemen to exchange for money. Information on the Women's Liberation Movement, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), and the Women's Peace Party is also contained here. Documents include teletypes, interviews, letters, memos, newsletters, and reports. The file is organized chronologically within two divisions: Domestic Security and Foreign Counterintelligence. Scholars interested in Vietnam-related government policy and domestic unrest will find this a useful collection.

This FBI file, which covers the period 1970 to 1993, began as an investigation into the Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam (COLIFAM). Included here are interviews with hundreds of Vietnamese refugees as well as information on how the North Vietnamese hoarded personal items of American servicemen to exchange for money. Information on the Women's Liberation Movement, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), and the Women's Peace Party is also contained here. Documents include teletypes, interviews, letters, memos, newsletters, and reports. The file is organized chronologically within two divisions: Domestic Security and Foreign Counterintelligence. Scholars interested in Vietnam-related government policy and domestic unrest will find this a useful collection.

Indochina, France, and the Viet Minh War, 1945-1954: Records of the U.S. State Department, Part 1: 1945-1949

Comprising records of the State Department's Central Classified Files, this collection contains records relating to the internal affairs of Indochina, during the period 1945-49. The records include instructions sent to and correspondence received by the State Department; the State Department's internal documentation, as well as correspondence between the Department and other federal departments and agencies, Congress, and private individuals and organizations; telegrams, airgrams, instructions, inquiries, studies, memoranda, situation reports, translations, special reports, plans, and official and unofficial correspondence.

Comprising records of the State Department's Central Classified Files, this collection contains records relating to the internal affairs of Indochina, during the period 1945-49. The records include instructions sent to and correspondence received by the State Department; the State Department's internal documentation, as well as correspondence between the Department and other federal departments and agencies, Congress, and private individuals and organizations; telegrams, airgrams, instructions, inquiries, studies, memoranda, situation reports, translations, special reports, plans, and official and unofficial correspondence.

Intelligence Reports from the NSC's Vietnam Information Group, 1967-1975

Primarily Department of State cables and CIA intelligence information cables concerning South and North Vietnam. Topics include the Vietnam War, U.S.-South Vietnam relations, South Vietnam's political climate, opposition groups, religious sects, ethnic groups, labor unions, corruption, press censorship, the North Vietnam's military and economy, peace negotiations, and events in Cambodia and Laos.

Primarily Department of State cables and CIA intelligence information cables concerning South and North Vietnam. Topics include the Vietnam War, U.S.-South Vietnam relations, South Vietnam's political climate, opposition groups, religious sects, ethnic groups, labor unions, corruption, press censorship, the North Vietnam's military and economy, peace negotiations, and events in Cambodia and Laos.

Laos: Records of the Department of State, 1963-1966

This archive treats the political affairs of Laos in the 1960s, when the United States supported the government of Souvanna Phouma in the face of North Vietnamese aggression. The collection is an essential resource for the study of Southeast Asian history and the U.S. role in the war in Vietnam. It offers a wide range of materials from U.S. diplomats including special reports on political and military affairs; studies and statistics on socioeconomic matters; interviews and minutes of meetings with foreign government officials; conference proceedings and international legal documents; full texts of instructions and cables sent and received by U.S. diplomatic personnel; reports and translations from foreign journals and newspapers; translations of high-level foreign government documents, such as speeches; and memoranda, official reports, and transcripts of political meetings and assemblies.

This archive treats the political affairs of Laos in the 1960s, when the United States supported the government of Souvanna Phouma in the face of North Vietnamese aggression. The collection is an essential resource for the study of Southeast Asian history and the U.S. role in the war in Vietnam. It offers a wide range of materials from U.S. diplomats including special reports on political and military affairs; studies and statistics on socioeconomic matters; interviews and minutes of meetings with foreign government officials; conference proceedings and international legal documents; full texts of instructions and cables sent and received by U.S. diplomatic personnel; reports and translations from foreign journals and newspapers; translations of high-level foreign government documents, such as speeches; and memoranda, official reports, and transcripts of political meetings and assemblies.

South Vietnam: Records of the Office of the Defense Attaché, 1973-1975

The Defense Attaché Office (DAO) Saigon was organized and was activated on 28 January 1973. DAO Saigon was a unique organization. It performed the traditional functions of a defense attaché, managed American military affairs in Vietnam after the cease-fire, including the programs for the support of the Republic of Vietnam’s Armed Forces (RVNAF), and furnished housekeeping support to Americans remaining in Vietnam after the ceasefire. Aside from the support of the RVNAF, it reported on operational matters and produced intelligence information on which subsequent decisions concerning the Military Assistance Program and American interests in Southeast Asia could be based. The DAO was evacuated from South Vietnam during the fall of Saigon on April 29, 1975. This collection comprises the DAO’s Historian’s Office files, including the official DAO History and the background files used in its compilation. The background files consist of serial reports, program memoranda and correspondence, operational and planning historical reports, intelligence summaries, briefing papers, press releases, and documents on the ceasefire.

The Defense Attaché Office (DAO) Saigon was organized and was activated on 28 January 1973. DAO Saigon was a unique organization. It performed the traditional functions of a defense attaché, managed American military affairs in Vietnam after the cease-fire, including the programs for the support of the Republic of Vietnam’s Armed Forces (RVNAF), and furnished housekeeping support to Americans remaining in Vietnam after the ceasefire. Aside from the support of the RVNAF, it reported on operational matters and produced intelligence information on which subsequent decisions concerning the Military Assistance Program and American interests in Southeast Asia could be based. The DAO was evacuated from South Vietnam during the fall of Saigon on April 29, 1975. This collection comprises the DAO’s Historian’s Office files, including the official DAO History and the background files used in its compilation. The background files consist of serial reports, program memoranda and correspondence, operational and planning historical reports, intelligence summaries, briefing papers, press releases, and documents on the ceasefire.

Sukarno and the Army-PKI Rivalry in the Years of Living Dangerously, 1960-1963

The records in this collection cover the internal and foreign policies, personalities, and events in a pivotal period of Indonesian history. The charismatic leader of Indonesia, Achmed Sukarno, steered his country between the political machinations of the Army Staff and the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI). These records consist of essential memoranda, correspondence, telegrams, memoranda of conversations, reports, and news articles and cover all aspects of U.S. relations with Indonesia, Indonesian internal affairs, and Indonesia's relations with its neighbors.

The records in this collection cover the internal and foreign policies, personalities, and events in a pivotal period of Indonesian history. The charismatic leader of Indonesia, Achmed Sukarno, steered his country between the political machinations of the Army Staff and the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI). These records consist of essential memoranda, correspondence, telegrams, memoranda of conversations, reports, and news articles and cover all aspects of U.S. relations with Indonesia, Indonesian internal affairs, and Indonesia's relations with its neighbors.

The OBSERVER: News for the American Soldier in Vietnam, 1962-1973

The Observer was a weekly newspaper published by the Command Information Division of the U.S. Military Assistance Command's Office of Information. It was the official organ of the Military Assistance Command, and it carried official news about and for American troops in Vietnam. As such, it goes without saying that it was carefully edited to make certain it did not print news articles favorable to the communist enemy. The Military Assistance Command spread more than 80,000 weekly Observers among all points in Vietnam in which American troops were domiciled.

The Observer was a weekly newspaper published by the Command Information Division of the U.S. Military Assistance Command's Office of Information. It was the official organ of the Military Assistance Command, and it carried official news about and for American troops in Vietnam. As such, it goes without saying that it was carefully edited to make certain it did not print news articles favorable to the communist enemy. The Military Assistance Command spread more than 80,000 weekly Observers among all points in Vietnam in which American troops were domiciled.

U.S. Civilian Advisory Effort in Vietnam: U.S. Operations Mission, 1954-1957 -- Classified & Subject Files of the Executive Office

This collection consists of unique records of the U.S. Operations Mission established to intervene in Vietnam-the country U.S. foreign policy deemed a lynchpin in the free world's fight against communism. The Classified & Subject Files of the Executive Office, document the myriad concerns and rationales that went into the control and direction of U.S. economic and technical assistance programs, as well as the coordination of mutual security activities, with respect to Vietnam.

This collection consists of unique records of the U.S. Operations Mission established to intervene in Vietnam-the country U.S. foreign policy deemed a lynchpin in the free world's fight against communism. The Classified & Subject Files of the Executive Office, document the myriad concerns and rationales that went into the control and direction of U.S. economic and technical assistance programs, as well as the coordination of mutual security activities, with respect to Vietnam.

U.S. Civilian Advisory Effort in Vietnam: U.S. Operations Mission, 1950-1954, The

The United States decision to provide military assistance to France and the Associated States of Indochina was reached informally in February/March 1950, funded by the President on May 1, 1950, and was announced on May 8, 1950. The decision was taken in spite of the U.S. desire to avoid direct involvement in a colonial war, and in spite of a sensing that France's political-military situation in Indochina was deteriorating. This collection consists of unique records of U.S. agencies established to intervene in Vietnam-the country U.S. foreign policy deemed a lynchpin in the free world's fight against communism. The Subject Files from the Office of the Director, U.S. Operations Missions, document the myriad concerns and rationales that went into the control and direction of U.S. economic and technical assistance programs, as well as the coordination of mutual security activities, with respect to Vietnam.

The United States decision to provide military assistance to France and the Associated States of Indochina was reached informally in February/March 1950, funded by the President on May 1, 1950, and was announced on May 8, 1950. The decision was taken in spite of the U.S. desire to avoid direct involvement in a colonial war, and in spite of a sensing that France's political-military situation in Indochina was deteriorating. This collection consists of unique records of U.S. agencies established to intervene in Vietnam-the country U.S. foreign policy deemed a lynchpin in the free world's fight against communism. The Subject Files from the Office of the Director, U.S. Operations Missions, document the myriad concerns and rationales that went into the control and direction of U.S. economic and technical assistance programs, as well as the coordination of mutual security activities, with respect to Vietnam.

U.S. Military Advisory Effort in Vietnam: MAAGV, 1950-1964

The involvement of the United States in the affairs of Vietnam began with grants of money and military equipment, grew with the dispatch of military advisers and maintenance personnel, and mushroomed with the commitment of ships, planes, tanks, and 550,000 troops. The United States created the Military Assistance and Advisory Group, Indochina, in 1950 to process, monitor, and evaluate American military aid to the French forces fighting in Southeast Asia. The French forces resented MAAG's presence and hindered its operations. At first MAAG's mission was not to train or advise the Vietnamese National Army, but by the time of the battle of Dien Bien Phu, those activities were under consideration by U.S. and French leaders. In 1955, MAAG Indochina, became MAAG Vietnam, and a separate MAAG was established in Cambodia. In 1955-1956, MAAG Vietnam, took over from the French the training and organizing of the Vietnamese National Army. The task facing MAAG Vietnam was enormous.

The involvement of the United States in the affairs of Vietnam began with grants of money and military equipment, grew with the dispatch of military advisers and maintenance personnel, and mushroomed with the commitment of ships, planes, tanks, and 550,000 troops. The United States created the Military Assistance and Advisory Group, Indochina, in 1950 to process, monitor, and evaluate American military aid to the French forces fighting in Southeast Asia. The French forces resented MAAG's presence and hindered its operations. At first MAAG's mission was not to train or advise the Vietnamese National Army, but by the time of the battle of Dien Bien Phu, those activities were under consideration by U.S. and French leaders. In 1955, MAAG Indochina, became MAAG Vietnam, and a separate MAAG was established in Cambodia. In 1955-1956, MAAG Vietnam, took over from the French the training and organizing of the Vietnamese National Army. The task facing MAAG Vietnam was enormous.

U.S. Relations and Policies in Southeast Asia, 1944-1958: Records of the Office of Southeast Asian Affairs

Historically, U.S. policy and diplomacy with Southeast Asia has been defined by U.S. interests in the region, whether it's maintaining free lanes of communication through the South China Sea, gaining access to the resources and markets of Southeast Asia, or containing the spread of Communism. Since World War II, the U.S. has constantly been involved in conflicts in the region: providing material and financial support for France during the First Indochina War and direct involvement in the Viet Cong insurgency in South Vietnam. This collection identifies the key issues, individuals, and events in the history of U.S.-Southeast Asia relations between 1944 and 1958, and places them in the context of the complex and dynamic regional strategic, political, and economic processes that have fashioned the American role in Southeast Asia. This comprises the records of eight U.S. State Department Offices related to Southeast Asia.

Historically, U.S. policy and diplomacy with Southeast Asia has been defined by U.S. interests in the region, whether it's maintaining free lanes of communication through the South China Sea, gaining access to the resources and markets of Southeast Asia, or containing the spread of Communism. Since World War II, the U.S. has constantly been involved in conflicts in the region: providing material and financial support for France during the First Indochina War and direct involvement in the Viet Cong insurgency in South Vietnam. This collection identifies the key issues, individuals, and events in the history of U.S.-Southeast Asia relations between 1944 and 1958, and places them in the context of the complex and dynamic regional strategic, political, and economic processes that have fashioned the American role in Southeast Asia. This comprises the records of eight U.S. State Department Offices related to Southeast Asia.

Western Books on Southeast Asia

This is a collection of 318 rare Western-language publications selected from Cornell University's John M. Echols collection on Southeast Asia, published during the 17th and 19th centuries. The collection brings together nearly three hundred years of writings by travelers from Europe to Southeast Asia. Countries covered include Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia), Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Java and Indonesia, and the Philippines. These publications range from official reports of government sponsored expeditions to personal journals of people travelling through the region on business or pleasure. With that variety, one can expect to see a wide range of observations in the collection, touching on local religions and customs, geography, social issues, trade, colonialist and imperialist economics and industry, linguistics, and anthropology. Much of the information is quite accurate, while a large amount is based on misunderstandings of what people were seeing, or in other ways, simply incorrect. Whether accurate or not, the collection provides a clear view of how Southeast Asia was seen during this period of time by Western eyes.

This is a collection of 318 rare Western-language publications selected from Cornell University's John M. Echols collection on Southeast Asia, published during the 17th and 19th centuries. The collection brings together nearly three hundred years of writings by travelers from Europe to Southeast Asia. Countries covered include Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia), Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Java and Indonesia, and the Philippines. These publications range from official reports of government sponsored expeditions to personal journals of people travelling through the region on business or pleasure. With that variety, one can expect to see a wide range of observations in the collection, touching on local religions and customs, geography, social issues, trade, colonialist and imperialist economics and industry, linguistics, and anthropology. Much of the information is quite accurate, while a large amount is based on misunderstandings of what people were seeing, or in other ways, simply incorrect. Whether accurate or not, the collection provides a clear view of how Southeast Asia was seen during this period of time by Western eyes.

Shanghai International Settlement: Urban Planning and Development, 1845 - 1948

A collection comprising land assessment schedules, land lists, land regulations and by-laws, rules on buildings, as well as files relating to public utility services, transportation, and other urban infrastructure and facilities in the Shanghai International Settlement.

A collection comprising land assessment schedules, land lists, land regulations and by-laws, rules on buildings, as well as files relating to public utility services, transportation, and other urban infrastructure and facilities in the Shanghai International Settlement.

Shanghai International Settlement: Shanghai Municipal Council Annual Reports & Budgets, Departmental Reports, and Minutes of Ratepayers Meetings, 1867–1941

Established in the late 1860s, the Shanghai Municipal Council (SMC) was the official governing body of the Shanghai International Settlement. Among the SMC subsidiaries were the police, power station, public health, and public works, controlling a large proportion of the settlement's businesses such as gas, water, and power supply, rickshaws, and tramways. It also regulated opium sales and prostitution until their banning in 1918 and 1920 respectively. It needs to be noted that the SMC was formed based on the votes of ratepayers in the settlement. In other words, the actual power of the SMC rested with the ratepayers.

Established in the late 1860s, the Shanghai Municipal Council (SMC) was the official governing body of the Shanghai International Settlement. Among the SMC subsidiaries were the police, power station, public health, and public works, controlling a large proportion of the settlement's businesses such as gas, water, and power supply, rickshaws, and tramways. It also regulated opium sales and prostitution until their banning in 1918 and 1920 respectively. It needs to be noted that the SMC was formed based on the votes of ratepayers in the settlement. In other words, the actual power of the SMC rested with the ratepayers.

Reports of the Immigrant Commission,1907-1910

This collection reproduces 41 bound volumes of reports by the U.S. Immigration Commission, analyzing the heavy waves of immigration to America early in this century and their effects on the country. These reports provide detailed information on the various nationalities of immigrants -- including the Japanese -- and on how they managed to fit into U.S. society.

This collection reproduces 41 bound volumes of reports by the U.S. Immigration Commission, analyzing the heavy waves of immigration to America early in this century and their effects on the country. These reports provide detailed information on the various nationalities of immigrants -- including the Japanese -- and on how they managed to fit into U.S. society.

Chinese Maritime Customs and Whangpoo Conservancy Board: Service Lists and Shanghai Port Reports, 1890 - 1943

This is a collection consisting of the service lists of Chinese Maritime Customs Service and the reports generated by a related institution, the Whangpoo (also Whangpu) Conservancy Board. The Whangpoo Conservancy Board was established in December 1905 as part of the treaty requirements prescribed in the Protocol of Peking signed in 1901 after the Boxer War, with the main functions of carrying out the “straightening of the channel of the Whangpu River and of the improvement of the bars above and below Wusung together with the maintenance of such improvements.” The Board was placed under the joint management of the Shanghai Customs Taotai (a Chinese official) and the Commissioner of Shanghai Customs (a Westerner). The Board compiled and published several series of reports regarding the harbour and port of Shanghai, including a five-section “Shanghai Harbour Investigation Report” and a series of reports entitled “The Port of Shanghai” from 1920-1943.

This is a collection consisting of the service lists of Chinese Maritime Customs Service and the reports generated by a related institution, the Whangpoo (also Whangpu) Conservancy Board. The Whangpoo Conservancy Board was established in December 1905 as part of the treaty requirements prescribed in the Protocol of Peking signed in 1901 after the Boxer War, with the main functions of carrying out the “straightening of the channel of the Whangpu River and of the improvement of the bars above and below Wusung together with the maintenance of such improvements.” The Board was placed under the joint management of the Shanghai Customs Taotai (a Chinese official) and the Commissioner of Shanghai Customs (a Westerner). The Board compiled and published several series of reports regarding the harbour and port of Shanghai, including a five-section “Shanghai Harbour Investigation Report” and a series of reports entitled “The Port of Shanghai” from 1920-1943.

Releases December 2021 - Papers of Old Shanghai: Social Shanghai, 1906 - 1912

Social Shanghai was a magazine founded and edited by Mina Shorrock in Shanghai. It began as a monthly publication for “ladies” and expanded over time to cover all aspects of social life in Shanghai and other Chinese treaty ports. It was the first foreign-language magazine published in China that reproduced substantially photographs in its pages.

Social Shanghai was a magazine founded and edited by Mina Shorrock in Shanghai. It began as a monthly publication for “ladies” and expanded over time to cover all aspects of social life in Shanghai and other Chinese treaty ports. It was the first foreign-language magazine published in China that reproduced substantially photographs in its pages.

Releases December 2021 - Papers of Old Shanghai: Press, Education, Healthcare, and Charity, 1863 - 1948

A collection consisting of monographs and pamphlets on the press, educational institutions, hospitals, and charity organizations operating in Shanghai.

A collection consisting of monographs and pamphlets on the press, educational institutions, hospitals, and charity organizations operating in Shanghai.

Releases December 2021 - Papers of Old Shanghai: Business, Banking, and Insurance, 1874 - 1949

A collection of monographs and pamphlets on the business firms, pricing, stocks and securities, and the banking and insurance industry in Shanghai.

A collection of monographs and pamphlets on the business firms, pricing, stocks and securities, and the banking and insurance industry in Shanghai.

Releases December 2021 - Papers of Old Shanghai: Societies and Clubs, 1890 - 1942

A collection of monographs and pamphlets published by and on societies and clubs established in the Shanghai International Settlement before 1949.

A collection of monographs and pamphlets published by and on societies and clubs established in the Shanghai International Settlement before 1949.

Releases December 2021 - Papers of Old Shanghai: Miscellanies, 1853 - 1945

A collection of miscellaneous pamphlets and monographs including travel guides, handbooks, directories, cartons, sketches, almanacs, who's who, research and investigation reports, laws and regulations, selected news reports on current affairs (e.g. the Battle of Shanghai against Japan).

A collection of miscellaneous pamphlets and monographs including travel guides, handbooks, directories, cartons, sketches, almanacs, who's who, research and investigation reports, laws and regulations, selected news reports on current affairs (e.g. the Battle of Shanghai against Japan).

Releases December 2021 - U.S. Relations with Panama and Operation Just Cause

This collection concerns United States relations with Panama, particularly Operation Just Cause and its aftermath. The United States grew increasingly displeased with the regime of Panamanian strongman Manuel Noriega in the late 1980s as Noriega's connections with South American drug cartels became evident. In the summer of 1989, the U.S. became more concerned after Noriega subverted the electoral process and encouraged violence against opposition political opponents. In December 1989, following attacks on members of the U.S. armed forces stationed in Panama, the United States struck back in Operation Just Cause, its mission to restore democratic institutions in Panama and arrest Noriega for his role in international drug smuggling. The brief military operation proved successful, and Noriega, after first alluding capture and taking refuge in the Papal Nuncio's residence, surrendered to U.S. authorities. He was transported back to the United States, stood trial on numerous drug-related charges, and was convicted and sentenced to prison.

This collection concerns United States relations with Panama, particularly Operation Just Cause and its aftermath. The United States grew increasingly displeased with the regime of Panamanian strongman Manuel Noriega in the late 1980s as Noriega's connections with South American drug cartels became evident. In the summer of 1989, the U.S. became more concerned after Noriega subverted the electoral process and encouraged violence against opposition political opponents. In December 1989, following attacks on members of the U.S. armed forces stationed in Panama, the United States struck back in Operation Just Cause, its mission to restore democratic institutions in Panama and arrest Noriega for his role in international drug smuggling. The brief military operation proved successful, and Noriega, after first alluding capture and taking refuge in the Papal Nuncio's residence, surrendered to U.S. authorities. He was transported back to the United States, stood trial on numerous drug-related charges, and was convicted and sentenced to prison.

Early Arabic Printed Books from the British Library, Religion Module + Law, Christian Literature & Missionary Texts Module

Based on A.G. Ellis’ catalog from 1894, the collection contains books on a variety of subjects from the 15th-19th centuries in Arabic script. Also includes translations into European and Asian languages. Gale has applied transliteration technology to allow searching on an electronic Arabic keyboard or in English. Religion and Law is a full-text searchable archive of early Arabic printed books on Islamic literature, including numerous editions of the Qur'an with translations and commentaries, traditions (hadith), works of the religious life, and Islamic law materials such as fiqh, statutes, and rulings, all of which provide insight and multiple points of entry into the study of the cultural, intellectual, and social lives of the people of the Middle East.

Based on A.G. Ellis’ catalog from 1894, the collection contains books on a variety of subjects from the 15th-19th centuries in Arabic script. Also includes translations into European and Asian languages. Gale has applied transliteration technology to allow searching on an electronic Arabic keyboard or in English. Religion and Law is a full-text searchable archive of early Arabic printed books on Islamic literature, including numerous editions of the Qur'an with translations and commentaries, traditions (hadith), works of the religious life, and Islamic law materials such as fiqh, statutes, and rulings, all of which provide insight and multiple points of entry into the study of the cultural, intellectual, and social lives of the people of the Middle East.

Early Arabic Printed Books from the British Library, Sciences, History, and Geography

Early Arabic Printed Books from the British Library: Sciences, History, and Geography is a full-text searchable archive of early Arabic printed books on medicine and physiology, classical sciences, mathematics, astrology, chemistry, natural history, philosophy, logic and ethics, politics, history and genealogy, biography, travel, geography, and much more. This collection presents the range of Arab learning that influenced the scholarship and scientific development in Europe through the Middle Ages and Early Modern period.

Early Arabic Printed Books from the British Library: Sciences, History, and Geography is a full-text searchable archive of early Arabic printed books on medicine and physiology, classical sciences, mathematics, astrology, chemistry, natural history, philosophy, logic and ethics, politics, history and genealogy, biography, travel, geography, and much more. This collection presents the range of Arab learning that influenced the scholarship and scientific development in Europe through the Middle Ages and Early Modern period.

Early Arabic Printed Books from the British Library, Literature, Grammar, Language, Catalogues, and Periodicals

Early Arabic Printed Books from the British Library: Literature, Grammar, Language, Catalogues, and Periodicals is a full-text searchable archive of early Arabic printed books from a range of genres that provide additional background and multiple points of entry into the study of the cultural, intellectual, and social lives of the people of the Middle East.

Early Arabic Printed Books from the British Library: Literature, Grammar, Language, Catalogues, and Periodicals is a full-text searchable archive of early Arabic printed books from a range of genres that provide additional background and multiple points of entry into the study of the cultural, intellectual, and social lives of the people of the Middle East.

Releases March 2022 - Refugees and Migration Module

Consists of case studies devoted to the exploration of intersectional issues related to refugees and migration throughout history. Each case study is backed with an accessible collection of hand-chosen primary sources, along with a bibliography, and relevant discussion questions. All curated content has been chosen by an editor-in-chief, who has also reviewed the case studies for accuracy and teachability.

Consists of case studies devoted to the exploration of intersectional issues related to refugees and migration throughout history. Each case study is backed with an accessible collection of hand-chosen primary sources, along with a bibliography, and relevant discussion questions. All curated content has been chosen by an editor-in-chief, who has also reviewed the case studies for accuracy and teachability.